2021 Posters

The following posters will be presented in the Exhibit Hall at the 2021 Gulf Coast Conference.

Abstract # 102 - Poster - 10/12/2021 - 10:00 AM - Poster Parkway

Automatic Transmission Fluids: What does the future hold for them?

Dr. Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Anson Law - Dept. Of Chemical Engineering, State univ. Of NY, Stony Brook

Automatic transmission fluids (ATF) are ubiquitously used for decades and is salient in optimizing a vehicle’s transmission. Internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles incorporate various transmissions, each with distinctive systems and dedicated fluids. Due to a significant ICE contribute to greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions, Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) are elevating environmental standards and becoming increasingly stringent. With an increase in pressure for an eco-friendly environment, there are growing incentives for hybrid and
all electric vehicles. Specifically, China and the US are two major frontrunners in this novel field and will continue developing. In this paper, we will discuss the future and practicality of ATFs in respect to a growing trend towards electric vehicles.

Abstract # 118 - Poster - 10/12/2021 - 1:20 PM - Poster Parkway

Measuring Apparent Viscosity at High-Temperature and High-Shear Rate (HTHS) by Multicell Capillary Viscometer

Dr. Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Stefan Lim - Dept. Of Chemical Engineering, State univ. Of NY, Stony Brook
Minjee Kim - Dept. Of Chemical Engineering, State univ. Of NY, Stony Brook
Brian Bick - Dept. Of Chemical Engineering, State univ. Of NY, Stony Brook
Jacky Jiang - Dept. Of Chemical Engineering, State univ. Of NY, Stony Brook
Anson Law - Dept. Of Chemical Engineering, State univ. Of NY, Stony Brook
Sarjeel Zaman - Dept. Of Chemical Engineering, State univ. Of NY, Stony Brook

Apparent Viscosity a tHigh-Temperature High-Shear Rate (HTHS) is a viscosity measurement of engine oils using nitrogen gas to pressurize multicell capillaries at 150 C. The measured flow time of the oil and the pressure is used to compute itsviscosity and shear rate. This method is salient in various applications, especially in heavy duty engines where the oil undergoes harsh conditions. These specifications are of paramount importance for safety and optimal performance. Lowering HTHS viscosity ostensibly conforms more towards stringent Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In this poster, we will demonstrate the basic principles and functions of the novel HTHS instrument and discuss its importance.

Abstract # 119 - Poster - 10/12/2021 - 1:20 PM - Poster Parkway

Vapor Pressure Measurement Technology: Analysis of the effects of Temperature on Vapor Pressure for Various Oil Samples

Dr. Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Stefan Lim - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Philip Iaccarino - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Tom Karis - TEK Data Systems Aromas

Vapor pressure is a crucial measurement in the fuel industry. Failure to account for the vapor pressure of a sample can lead to accidents that damage the environment and the health of others. In an attempt to regulate toxic vapors released into the air, some governments regulate the vapor pressure of petroleum products. A prime example of this is that the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) restricts the Reid vapor pressure of commercial gasoline to be lower than 7.0, 7.8, or 9.0 psi depending on the region during the summer months, and this shows that devices to quickly and easily measure the vapor pressure of fuels is a necessity in the industry. ASTM D6378, developed in 1999, uses a revolutionary method for measuring the vapor pressure of petroleum products and only requires about 10 mL of sample, as opposed to the upwards of 700 mL required for the Reid Vapor method. In this poster, we study the development of vapor pressure measurement from Reid up to the triple expansion method. We evaluate several samples provided by the various customers and investigate the efficiency and sustainability of a modern vapor pressure instrument that only requires a fractional amount of sample compared to its predecessor.

Abstract # 120 - Poster - 10/12/2021 - 1:20 PM - Poster Parkway

Rapid Scanning for Phthalate Esters Relugated under RoHS3

Kevin Menard PhD. - Hitachi High-Technologies-Science, America Inc. Dallas, TX USA
Greg Rigby - Hitachi High-Technologies-Science, America Inc., CA USA
Yuichi Kasai - Hitachi High-Tech Science Corporation, Tokyo Japan
Shin Okawa - Hitachi High-Tech Science Corporation, Tokyo Japan
Masataka Ohgaki - Hitachi High-Tech Science Corporation, Tokyo Japan

In 2013, the European Union expanded the list of hazardous substances contained in the RoHS Directive. In addition, certain phthalate esters (PhEs), such as dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), and diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), will be categorized as RoHS 3 prohibited substances starting from July 2019. Although pyrolysis–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (PyGCMS) is a viable analytical method for the screening of PhEs, Hitachi’s new thermal desorption MS using a novel soft-ionization is quantitative, faster, and more convenient. The resulting screening method can be carried out by anyone within ten minutes.

Abstract # 126 - Poster - 10/12/2021 - 10:00 AM - Poster Parkway

Design & Development of a New Innovative Test Method to Quantify Tackiness on a Wider Range of Greases

Dr. Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Stanley Zhang - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Stefan Lim - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.

Greases are utilized in a wide range of applications to increase equipment efficiency or protect the components from friction and wear. Ensuring that adequate quantities of grease remain adhered to motile parts is critical to maintain performance and integrity. Determining grease tackiness which is, a measure of the adhesive properties of a grease sample, can provide crucial information about the compatibility of a certain grease with a specific task. Adhesive properties are the result of the high-weight polymers that greases are comprised of. Currently, the most common method of testing a grease’s tackiness is to use the finger test. The finger test is a qualitative test in which the tester places an unspecified amount of sample between their thumb and index finger and pulls them apart to determine if a grease is of low, moderate, or high tackiness. In this poster, we discuss the development of a new instrument and procedure analogous to the finger test, but with quantitative results. The principle of pulling apart grease with one’s fingers is standardized with two metal plates that can accurately measure the force exerted to separate the sample. We have run tests on numerous grease samples with our new instrument in an attempt to generate a new test procedure along with repeatability and reproducibility for this refined and unique technique.

Abstract # 127 - Poster - 10/12/2021 - 10:00 AM - Poster Parkway

Determination of the Flow Pressure Measurement of Semi-solid Materials in Low Temperature Environments

Dr. Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Stanley Zhang - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Stefan Lim - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.

Semi-solid substances such as lubricant greases are predominantly used to establish lubricant films on equipment in order to increase mobility and limit frictional wear. In low temperature environments, the viscosity of grease increases to such a degree that it hardens and ceases to flow. Low temperature greases are designed to maintain functional viscosity and lubricity at extreme negative temperatures. Currently, a few experimental techniques, such as the US Steel Grease Mobility, the Lincoln Ventmeter, and the Apparent Viscosity of Lubricating Greases (ASTM D1092) Methods are used to study the low temperature properties of greases. DIN Method 51805, also called the Kesternich Method, has been used in Europe to gain a better understanding of low temperature properties of greases. In this poster, we study the development of a new instrument used to test the low temperature flow of greases in accordance with the Kesternich Method. We evaluate a wide range of semi-solid materials and greases and compare their low temperature properties with the newly developed instrument and attempt to generate a new test procedure along with detailed statistics for this unique technique.

Abstract # 128 - Poster - 10/12/2021 - 10:00 AM - Poster Parkway

What’s in Your Fuel? A Crash Course on the Various Additives Used in 2020 and How They Have Changed

Dr. Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Stefan Lim - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.

There are an estimated 150,000 gas stations in the US and about 378 million gallons of gasoline are used daily in the United States. Despite this staggering number, most Americans do not know what’s in their gasoline. Modern motor gasoline is more than the low-boiling components obtained during refining of the crude oil, like most people believe. Motor gasoline is a complex formulation that in addition to containing the low-boiling hydrocarbons contains stabilizers, octane boosters, detergents, anti-freeze agents, and a multitude of other substances tailored to increase fuel efficiency, decrease harmful emissions, and maximize the functionality of the vehicles they fuel. These substances are referred to as additives and every major producer of gasoline has its own version of an ideal additives package. This poster will explain several types of fuel additives and how they have changed and will explore the direction the fuel additives industry is moving towards in the coming years.

Abstract # 130 - Poster - 10/12/2021 - 1:20 PM - Poster Parkway

The Science Behind Viscosity Measurements at High Temperature and High Shear

Dr. Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Rui Chen - Koehler Instrument Company

Viscosity is a critical property of engine lubricants that can greatly affect the performance and lifespan of the engine. However, at high temperature and pressure conditions, the viscosities of these engine lubricants vary from the standard observed under normal conditions. As a result, it is vital to understand firsthand what properties the lubricants will exhibit at high temperature and high shear (HTHS) conditions. Engine oils are frequently subjected to temperatures of 150℃ with varying pressures that depend on the grading of the lubricant. Despite these conditions, there is limited understanding of the HTHS instrument available that can test motor oils readily and effectively. In this poster, the main focus will be to describe the theory of high shear and high temperature effects towards various lubricating oils. We will also focus on the design and construction from a theoretical viewpoint of an apparatus to subject engine oils to high shear under various temperature conditions. Our study will focus on understanding the fundamentals of the changes that increased temperature and shear puts on various lubricating oils.

Abstract # 131 - Poster - 10/12/2021 - 10:00 AM - Poster Parkway

Use of color analysis to understand sample changes in STA samples.

Kevin Menard PhD. - Hitachi High-Technologies-Science, America Inc. Dallas, TX USA
Eita Shimoda - Hitachi High-Tech Science Corporation, Tokyo Japan
Susumu Ito - Hitachi High-Tech Science Corporation, Tokyo Japan

During the testing in the STA, DSC, or DMA, the ability to observe physical changes is useful. While thermal methods give you information on transitions and bulk changes, interpretation is often tricky. Over the years, several techniques have been used to monitor and record these changes. Everything from view port on the low end to microscopes to low light cameras for chemiluminescence has been tried. Real view®* allows for visual inspection of samples, confirming the changes in the sample’s form or shape during the experiment. However, it also allows for color analysis using several Color changes are often slow, making it hard to judge the timing of the change. Quantifying the color of image makes it possible one to detect the slight color change without worrying about variation due to operator influence.

Abstract # 133 - Poster - 10/12/2021 - 1:40 PM - Poster Parkway

Evaluation of Extreme Pressure and Anti-Wear Properties Using a Translatory Oscillation Tribometer (SRV®) to Screen Gear Oils for Scuffing Loading Testing

Dr. Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Stanley Zhang - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc

Gear oils are a category of high viscosity lubricants primarily used for transmissions and differentials in automobiles or other industrial machinery. It is common practice for gear lubricants to contain various additives to enhance their load-carrying capacity and performance in specific applications. In particular, machinery operating under heavy load, slow speed conditions often require anti scuff gear lubricants or extreme pressure (EP) lubricants to provide protection against adhesive and frictional wear. The Translatory Oscillation Tribometer (SRV®) is an invaluable instrument for evaluating friction and wear properties which can be applied to EP and anti-wear (AW) testing of gear oils. EP and AW tests are conducted on a translatory oscillation tester equipped for parallel movement, following the methodology of DIN 51834-4. The results are able to characterize and differentiate gear oils based on their EP and AW properties, which can serve as a pre-screener to determine which oils should go on for further bench tests and field use. This allows the SRV® Tribometer to function as a tool to screen gear oils and narrow down which gear oils should undergo expensive and time-consuming tests, such as the FZG standard scuffing loading test, which measures the scuffing load capacity of lubricants as per ISO 14635. In addition to pre-screening gear oils, the SRV® Tribometer is capable of yielding results for the coefficient of friction, wear volume and estimations for the load carrying capacity. This poster will show how the tests were developed, how the results compare to the FZG scuffing load test and how the SRV® Tribometer can be used to provide a meaningful evaluation of gear oils.

Abstract # 134 - Poster - 10/12/2021 - 1:40 PM - Poster Parkway

Development of Application-Oriented Friction and Wear Tests for Industrial Greases

Dr. Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Vincent Colantuoni - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Philip Iaccarino - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Stanley Zhang - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.

The use of semi-solid lubricants is integral in the effort to protect against the frictional wear and scuffing between contacting surfaces in relative motion. The wide range of lubricating grease properties and their respective applications necessitates the diversification of existing screening methods. Established test methods and standards for lubricants can serve as the basis for screening greases based on their chemical properties, but has limited carry over to determining the behavior of greases in real-life operating conditions. The Translatory Oscillation Tribometer (SRV®) is a newly developed instrument that can conduct tests according to established test methods and standards, as well as application-oriented testing procedures, which can be used for evaluating friction, wear, and extreme pressure properties of lubricating greases. This poster will highlight application-oriented friction and wear tests through test scenarios involving the effect of wear particles on the lubricity of a lubricating grease, high temperature fretting behavior of industrial greases, and the simplified examination of rolling/sliding friction of high performance greases that can be used as a FE8/FE9 rolling bearing pre-screening test.

Abstract # 135 - Poster - 10/12/2021 - 1:40 PM - Poster Parkway

Overcoming the Detrimental Effects of Inorganic Salts in Crude Oil

Dr. Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Sarjeel Zaman - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Stanley Zhang - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.

Crude oils are complex mixtures that consist of a wide range of naturally occurring hydrocarbons that may differ in appearance, composition, consistency, and color. These oils are uniquely classified by hydrocarbon composition, distillation, yield, quality, sulfur content, or API gravity. However, crude oils often contain several compounds and impurities that need to be removed during the refining process. These include sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen compounds, trace metals, and inorganic salts. In particular, inorganic salts within raw crude can cause fouling and plugging of pipelines and heat exchangers. Additional damage can result from serious hydrochloric acid and ammonium chloride corrosion from the decomposition of chloride salts. This leads to substantial economic loss due to increased capital expenditure to repair or replace equipment. Production down-time during maintenance periods and energy inefficiency can reduce yield and further decrease profits. The wide range of problems caused by excess salt content in crude oil necessitates the measurement and removal of inorganic salts to meet industry standards. The Koehler K23060 Salt in Crude Analyzer is a newly developed instrument that can determine salt concentration in a crude oil sample conforming to the ASTM D3230 method in a quick and reliable manner to prevent complications with equipment or yield during the refinery process. This poster will primarily focus on the hazardous effects of inorganic salts during the petroleum refinery and transportation processes and how the K23060 Salt in Crude Analyzer can be used to determine excess salt concentration for crude oil desalting.

Abstract # 138 - Poster - 10/12/2021 - 1:40 PM - Poster Parkway

Gas-to-Liquids: Time is of the Essence

Dr. Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Anson Law - Dept. Of Chemical Engineering, State univ. Of NY, Stony Brook

Gas-to-liquids (GTL) process is surfacing as a popular and viable method for producing liquid fuels with the current surplus of natural gas fields in the U.S. Compared to liquid fuels produced from crude oil, GTL fuels are superior in environmental friendliness and quality which is of paramount importance in today’s stringent environmental regulations. The problem lies in the unpredictability of available natural gas fields for upcoming years. Currently, small GTL plants are advantageous in every facet for exploiting stranded gas compared to large GTL plants which require heavy investments and large productions to be profitable. In this paper, we will dive into the current and future states of GTL and determine whether it is plausible for this process to be a viable and profitable alternative to crude oil.

Abstract # 140 - Poster - 10/12/2021 - 1:40 PM - Poster Parkway

Reactive Pyrolysis-GC/MS of Polymers in a Steam Environment Used to Study Potential Fuel

Karen Sam - CDS Analytical
Ben Landas - CDS Analytical

Pyrolysis under reactive atmospheres and catalysts have been studied as methods of converting biomass to a more useable fuel, including pyrolysis under the presence of steam. It is possible to investigate the conversion of biomass to bio-oil on a microscale, using reactant gas, catalysts, and pressures up to 500psi with pyrolysis-GC-MS. A recently developed pyrolyzer has the capability of introducing steam as a reactant gas.  In this study, analytical pyrolysis GC/MS using steam as a reactant gas will be studied on a natural material to see if its presence changes pyrolysis products, creating more favorable fuel or gases.  

Abstract # 141 - Poster - 10/12/2021 - 10:20 AM - Poster Parkway

Nanotechnology Innovations Aid the Lubricants and Grease Industry

Dr. Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Sarjeel Zaman - Stony Brook University
George Diloyan - Nanotech Industrial Solutions

The lubricants industry is a part of a growing movement in the manufacturing world to adopt the use of nanotechnology in their products. Nanoparticle additives in lubricants have long been shown to drastically improve a variety of physical and chemical properties, in both the lubricant itself and in the contact surface to which the lubricant is applied. This poster stands to be a comprehensive literature review that will take a close look into the potential for use of nanomaterials in various lubricating oils. To be more specific, two key research papers will be primarily used to analyze the anti-wear and friction-reducing tribological properties of nanoparticle additives in a water-based solvent. Furthermore, this poster will present modern developments in oil formulations, the mechanisms by which nanoparticle additives interact with contact surfaces, and a comparison of the many different types of nanoparticle constituents.

Abstract # 142 - Poster - 10/12/2021 - 10:20 AM - Poster Parkway

Cloud and Pour Point Testing: Innovative Automatic Instrument Development That Can Serve as an Effective Alternative to Referee Methods

Dr. Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Rui Chen - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.

Many petroleum products are exposed to a wide range of operating temperatures, and these products must perform effectively at all temperatures. When looking for optimal performance, top quality fuels and lubricants are necessary. The term “cold flow properties” is commonly used when discussing and characterizing the behavior of petroleum products at low temperature.  Some of these properties include the cloud point, pour point, freezing point, and cold filter plugging point. Operation at temperatures near or below the cloud and pour points may result in damage to equipment, so these properties are commonly used as a measure of the lowest temperature for a product’s utility. Therefore, it is paramount for the cloud and pour point to be clear so that these suboptimal conditions can be avoided during operation.

Test methods for determining the cloud and pour points are some of the oldest in the industry, with ASTM D97 first being approved in 1927. The referee test methods for determining the cloud and pour points is performed as per ASTM D2500 and D97, respectively. Recently, new cloud and pour point test methods and instruments have been developed that take advantage of more modern technology and offer countless advantages when compared to the referee methods, such as automated test procedures. ASTM D5771 and D5950 are two of these methods, which are the test methods for determining the cloud point and pour point of petroleum products as per the optical detection stepped cooling method and the automatic tilt method, respectively. This poster will discuss the development of new instruments that comply with ASTM D5771 and D5950, and will explain the advantages these instruments have when compared to the referee methods for cloud and pour point testing.

Abstract # 144 - Poster - 10/12/2021 - 10:20 AM - Poster Parkway

The Applicability and Efficiency of a Tribo-Corrosion Cell Integrated in a SRV® Tribometer

Dr. Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Rui Chen - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Mathias Woydt - MATRILUB

Although the presence of tribo-corrosion has been known for a while, its focus and interests are still on the rise. Corrosion and tribology are both surface properties and are linked via tribocorrosion and form an intersection. In particular, the development, implication, and application of a tribo-corrosion cell for the SRV â tribometer has been of great interest. Methods for identifying the tribo-corrosive properties can be achieved through electrochemical means. Such an integration has the potential for enhanced material and chemical testing, such as electrical fields and defined currents (arcing) in tribocontacts. The design features include oscillating motion, and electrically isolated cell, electrical contact resistance and flow conductive electrolytes. The usage of a tribo-corro-sion cell is vital in that this information can assist in determining the impact of electrical fields and currents through tribological contacts on the tribo-logical profile and aging of oils and greases. Often-times the mechanical stress of a system is under-stood, but not in combination with electrochemical stresses and became now measureable.

Abstract # 147 - Poster - 10/12/2021 - 3:00 PM - Poster Parkway

Determination of Trace Contaminants in High Purity Ethylene Using GC-ICP-MS

William Geiger - CONSCI

Ethylene is the largest production chemical in the world.  More than half of this production goes toward the manufacture of polyethylene one of the most important polymers used today. Catalysts are susceptible to poisoning by contaminants such as arsine (AsH3), phosphine (PH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and carbonyl sulfide (COS).  The goal of an analytical method to measure these contaminants would be to use a single instrument, a single column set, and a single tune to measure all of these with a detection limit of less than one part per billion using an ICP-MS as a GC detector.

Abstract # 149 - Poster - 10/12/2021 - 10:20 AM - Poster Parkway

The Current Role of Biofuels in the Modern Fuel Market and the Future Development of Advanced Biofuels

Dr. Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Eeman Jawad - Dept. Of Chemical Engineering, State Univ. of NY, Stony Brook
Stanley Zhang - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.

With escalating sustainability efforts in the modern fuel market, there is an increasing incentive to transition from fossil fuels to biofuels, which are an alternative fuel option produced from renewable plant-based organic matter.  There are two types of biofuels that are currently in growing use: bioethanol and biodiesel. Both types of biofuels have their respective advantages and disadvantages. Bioethanol is readily in use for most vehicles in low alcohol-gasoline blends and contributes to lessening environmentally harmful tailpipe emissions. However, bioethanol blends with higher ethanol content are limited to usage in flexible fuel vehicles. Biodiesels play a significant role in reducing carbon dioxide emissions and improving engine performance, but at the cost of raising potential issues in cold weather, reactivity with engine components, and clogging of fuel filters with dissolved sediments. The United States and Brazil produce a majority of the global supply of biofuels from soybeans, corn, and sugarcane. With the market’s expected growth, this creates a conflict of whether to allocate these crops to food or fuel. This is the reasoning behind research into second-generation biofuels derived from non-edible renewable sources such as switchgrass and algae. This poster will explore these potentially new sources of biofuels and their practicality in production, effectiveness, and sustainability compared to traditional biofuel feedstock.

Abstract # 150 - Poster - 10/12/2021 - 1:00 PM - Poster Parkway

Reduction of Fouling Due to Heat-Induced Deposition and Coking Using Automated Flocculation Titrimetry

Dr. Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Muqsit Khan - Dept. Of Chemical Engineering, State Univ. of NY, Stony Brook
Stanley Zhang - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.

Heat-induced deposition and coke formation results in fouling which leads to down time and economic loss. If severe pyrolysis occurs, the intermediate polarity material is ruined. This can result in both heat-induced deposition and coking.  The common prevention measure is halting distillation early enough so that coke doesn’t form. This lack of an indicator results in premature cessation which is inefficient. A proper index of pyrolytic processes can be established using the Automated Flocculation Titrimeter (AFT). The AFT performs Heithaus titration based on ASTM D 6307. The instrument accurately predicts the compatibility of asphalts, petroleum residues, and heavy oils. The parameters set forth by the results provide the basis for the process’s retention time. Western Research Institute established the WRI Coking Index, allowing the danger of pyrolysis to be measured. The WRI index is used to indicate the proximity to coke formation. The prevention of undesirable coke and heat-induced deposition minimizes fouling and increases efficiency. The poster discusses the applications of the AFT instrument for diminishing fouling caused by heat-induced deposition and coke formation.

Abstract # 151 - Poster - 10/12/2021 - 1:20 PM - Poster Parkway

The Progression of Modern Global Engine Oil Standards to Satisfy Fuel Economy Requirements and Emission Regulations

Dr. Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Quiriat Cuadra Lopez - Dept. Of Chemical Engineering, State Univ. of NY, Stony Brook
Stanley Zhang - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.

Since the emergence of the automotive industry, engine oil has proven essential in the lubrication of automobile engines. Engine oils have a wide range of usages, ranging from decreasing friction between moving parts, reducing wear, transferring heat, and minimizing energy loss in combustion engines. The addition of complex and advanced additives is often necessary in engine oil formulations to attain maximum engine performance. At the same time, engine oils must bolster fuel economy and limit harmful tailpipe emissions. Engine oils must be carefully developed and categorized in accordance with standards set by organizations around the world. However, the presence of countless organizations with similar test methods reveals the issue of translating results across international markets. In 2019, the Global Lubricants Test Standards Collaboration Team was formed to conceptualize existing standards, with the intent to reduce redundancy and promote technological advancement. The United States, Europe, Canada, India, as well as China, adapt ever-changing standards based on environmental, market, and technological influences. Each country implements standards that pertain to their domestic markets and distinct driving conditions. In this poster, modern engine oil standards, along with test methods, will be analyzed domestically and compared on an international scale to facilitate global progress as the automotive industry continues to evolve.

Abstract # 152 - Poster - 10/12/2021 - 1:00 PM - Poster Parkway

The Current State of the Fuel Additives Market and Future Projections of Growth

Dr. Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Yuya Baba - Dept. Of Chemical Engineering, State Univ. of NY, Stony Brook
Stanley Zhang - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.

Fuel additives are chemical compounds that enhance the quality and performance of fuels. We can label them into three different categories: performance additives, distribution additives, and fuel quality additives. Performance additives, as the name suggests, improves the performance of the engine. For example, carburetor icing is caused by the decrease in temperature from evaporating gasoline. Anti-icing agents are included to prevent icing from occurring and enhance airflow. Fuel additives can also improve lubricity, combustion efficiency, and reduce unwanted emissions. Distribution additives are more focused on protecting fuels during transportation and distribution. They can be used to improve flow, prevent corrosion, or be as simple as add color to the fuel to differentiate the product. Lastly, fuel quality additives focus on maintaining the quality of the fuel during storage and preventing degradation. Oxidation inhibitors for example, improve the long-term fuel storage stability by preventing the formation of peroxides and gums. The fuel additives market is expected to see a growth in the upcoming years due to the stricter regulation by the SAFE Vehicle Rule, stricter emission limits, ULSD fuel improvements, and the reopening of the country after the pandemic. Although the electric vehicle industry is a direct competitor to the fuel car industry, fuel and oil still dominate the market when it comes to the number of units sold and remains the primary fuel source for energy in the transportation sector.

Abstract # 153 - Poster - 10/12/2021 - 1:00 PM - Poster Parkway

The Role of Lubrication and Tribology in the Advancement of Sustainability

Dr. Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Karandeep Singh - Dept. Of Chemical Engineering, State Univ. of NY, Stony Brook
Nathan Aragon - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.

Tribology has a major impact on sustainability in many different fields in varying ways. In order to reduce wear in machines and increase their lifetime, the friction between the parts of the machinery can be reduced, and as a result minimizes greenhouse gas emissions and increases machine efficiency. As machines get more efficient and last longer, they require less maintenance and waste less energy. Tribology has the potential to greatly improve different fields, such as wind power generation and electric vehicles, leading to increased sustainability. Wind power is one of the best options for minimizing greenhouse gas emissions and by utilizing tribology, wind turbines can be made more effective and economical. This allows for it to become a more reliable source of power. Due to this, electric vehicles become a more environmentally friendly option since they would be powered by renewable energy, such as wind or solar power. The field of tribology would make the vehicles themselves more efficient as well as increase the potential of the vehicle’s batteries. On top of these benefits, using natural or biodegradable lubricants, which have the potential to be even better than synthetic lubricants, would make wind power generation and electric vehicles even more sustainable and environmentally friendly. This poster will go further into detail about how bio-lubricants, wind power, electric vehicles, and various other fields are benefited by tribology and lead to a more sustainable future.

Abstract # 154 - Poster - 10/12/2021 - 10:00 AM - Poster Parkway

Investigating the Detrimental Effects of Escalating Carbon Emissions and the Future Approaches to Minimize Gaseous CO2

Dr. Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Daisy-Ann Norman - Dept. Of Chemical Engineering, State Univ. of NY, Stony Brook
Stanley Zhang - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.

The burning of fossil fuels has been the leading contributor to the rise of global carbon emissions, which is the primary driver of global climate change. Human activities, especially industrial emissions, have generated a detrimental impact on the environment, causing major climate issues, such as air pollution, global warming, and biodiversity deterioration. Global temperatures have increased extensively, and the range of harm has led to ecological, physical, and health problems, and extreme weather events, such as floods, droughts, heatwaves, and storms. Many scientists and engineers have been working to minimize CO2 emissions by limiting the use of petroleum products and exploring alternative sources of energy. In the effort to transition away from fossil fuels, new technologies and energy sources have been pursued, which have less adverse environmental effects and demonstrate superb energy efficiency. Solar energy and nuclear energy are alternative energy sources that have shown substantial potential in replacing fossil fuels for the pursuit of renewable and sustainable energy production. In this poster, the negative impacts of carbon emissions and the potential strategies for reducing carbon emissions will be discussed.

Abstract # 156 - Poster - 10/12/2021 - 1:00 PM - Poster Parkway

Development of a Closed-Cup Pensky-Martens Test to Numerically Determine the Flash Point of Flammable Liquids

Dr. Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Faaiz Kamal - Dept. Of Chemical Engineering, State Univ. of NY, Stony Brook
Stanley Zhang - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.

The flash point of an organic liquid is defined as the lowest temperature at which the vapors formed above the liquid will briefly ignite in close proximity to an ignition source. Determination of the flash point is crucial to ensuring safety in the petroleum industry when considering the proper environment for the storage and transportation volatile substances. Regarding oils, a comparison between the baseline flash point of an oil and the flash point of a separate sample of the oil can be utilized for a variety of analyses, such as changes in oil chemistry (oil cracking), additions to the oil (oil contamination), or subtractions from the oil (thermal evaporation). The primary testing methods for flash point determination are classified as either open or closed cup tests. Since the measured value for the flash point can vary depending on the distance from the ignition source, closed cup tests are typically preferred, as the resultant flash points will typically be lower, erring on the side of caution. The K71000 Automatic PMCC Flash Point Analyzer manufactured by Koehler Instrument Company, Inc. is a fully automatic flash point tester that can determine the flash points of flammable substances via the Pensky-Martens Closed Cup Test, as specified in ASTM D93.

Abstract # 157 - Poster - 10/12/2021 - 1:00 PM - Poster Parkway

Assessing Low Temperature Characteristics of Fuels Through Cloud and Pour Point Determination

Dr. Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Anthony Schevon - Dept. Of Chemical Engineering, State Univ. of NY, Stony Brook
Stanley Zhang - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.

Determining the cloud point and pour point of petroleum products is pivotal to assessing the proper temperatures for the storage and use of fuels and lubricants. When petroleum is used under low temperature conditions, flow characteristics and functionality can be compromised. When a fuel approaches its cloud point, it begins to develop a cloudy appearance, which is caused by the crystallization of solidified wax. Similarly, the pour point of fuel refers to the temperature at which the fuel loses its flow characteristics and ceases to flow. The improper use of fuels in non-operable temperature ranges can lead to system failure and costly consequences. The K77000 Automatic Cloud and Pour Point Analyzer provides an efficient and accurate method for cloud point and pour point determination in a single unit. These low temperature characteristics are crucial for evaluating which petroleum derived products can maintain proper function under extreme cold conditions. Additives can be used to supplement the cold weather operability of fuels and lubricants that are susceptible to low temperatures. This poster will highlight the advantages of the K77000 Automatic Cloud and Pour Point Analyzer and discuss the potential solutions to using petroleum at low temperatures.

Abstract # 158 - Poster - 10/12/2021 - 2:00 PM - Poster Parkway

Solar Power: Perspective on Renewable Energy for Electric Vehicles

Dr. Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Qingcheng Yu - Dept. Of Chemical Engineering, State Univ. of NY, Stony Brook
Stanley Zhang - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.

Greenhouse gas emissions by the burning of fossil fuels has represented a major issue in the modern world. Serious health problems caused by pollution and the devastating impact on the world's ecosystem and economy make the development of clean energy extremely urgent. The transportation sector, in particular, accounts for 28% of global greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, new automotive technology is required to mitigate the exponential trend of pollution. The rise of the electric vehicle (EV) industry is undoubtedly a significant step towards a greener future. Moreover, solar energy represents one of the most popular renewable and clean energy sources in recent years, as new kinds of solar-powered electric vehicles and innovative charging stations are gradually paving their way into the EV industry. Compared to conventional EVs, solar-powered electric vehicles (SPEVs) have no internal combustion engine, clutch, and gearbox, but are made up of panels, storage appliances, and electromotors, which can convert solar energy directly into electricity. Therefore, an increase in the share of SPEVs can effectively improve the integration of renewable energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The two main methods of solar energy charging are direct charging through photovoltaic (PV) panels mounted on the roof of the automobile and through a solar-powered charging station. In this poster, we discuss the disadvantages of the two approaches in detail, possible ways to improve performance, and the prospect of future development in integrating solar power into the EV industry.

Abstract # 159 - Poster - 10/12/2021 - 2:00 PM - Poster Parkway

Evaluation of the Characteristics of Modern Lubricants for Electric Vehicles

Dr. Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Aaliyah Kaushal - Dept. Of Chemical Engineering, State Univ. of NY, Stony Brook
Nathan Aragon - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.

The rising popularity of electric vehicles (EVs) and electrified drivelines has increased the demand for developing specialized lubricants. These dedicated lubricants must possess characteristics that optimize EV performance, such as the ability to reduce noise, maintain compatibility with electrical components, and maximize efficiency. The lubricants should also reduce corrosion, improve the vehicle’s electrical properties, and have an appropriate viscosity. Reduced viscosity decreases the friction experienced by gears which increases the useful torque, efficiency, and range of EVs. To achieve these desirable lubricant properties, various technologies can potentially be used for EV lubricant production. The incorporation of nanoparticles in lubricants has been shown to decrease friction and increase the thermal and oxidative stability required by electric motors. Thermal and oxidative stability can also be improved with additives and synthetic-based oils. In addition, bio-lubricants are being developed that will address the growing concerns over sustainability, biodegradability, and reduced toxicity. Although these advancements have worked in internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, a great amount of research still needs to be done to ascertain how they can be applied in EV technology. The successful development of effective EV lubricants will be a step towards a greener future and will enable EVs to dominate the transportation industry. This poster discusses the advancements that need to be made in lubricant technology, challenges faced in the field of EVs, and innovations that have the potential to yield ideal properties in EV lubricants for maximizing EV efficiency.

Abstract # 160 - Poster - 10/12/2021 - 2:00 PM - Poster Parkway

The Future of Environmentally Friendly and Sustainable Lubricant Formulations

Dr. Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Alex D’Acunto - Dept. Of Chemical Engineering, State Univ. of NY, Stony Brook
Nathan Aragon - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.

Lubricants have been, and continue to be, a vital tool in the multi-faceted field of chemical engineering. Their usage spans from the engine oils in planes that promote fuel efficiency to the hydraulic fluids in machinery that transmit power effectively; simply put, modern technology is highly dependent on lubricants. However, the increasing rate of depletion for the world's crude oil reserves has sparked a renewed interest in developing highly functional, renewable, biodegradable, and environmentally friendly lubricants. While this would be an amazing ideal to strive for, the technical specifications for lubricants are already very demanding to begin with without considering extraneous environmental criteria such as eco-toxicological properties complicating matters further. As the regulations from organizations such as the US Environmental Protection Association (EPA) and the American Chemistry Council (ACC) continue to push the lubricant industry down this environmentally friendly path, new lubricant formulations need to be developed. This poster will outline the challenges the lubricant industry must overcome as the demand for an environmentally friendly product soars. 

Abstract # 165 - Poster - 10/12/2021 - 1:00 PM - Poster Parkway

Characterization of petrochemical products by combustion method using a completely automated elemental analyzer

Liliana Krotz - Thermo Fisher Scientific

Elemental analysis is applied in petroleum chemistry to ascertain the quality needed for better engine performance and to help with the identification of vehicle exhaust constituents, harmful to the environment. The Thermo Scientific FlashSmart Elemental Analyzer allows simultaneous CHNS determination by combustion and oxygen determination by pyrolysis. The Elemental Analyzer is equipped with two independent furnaces allowing the installation of two analytical circuits which are used alternatively through the Multi Valve Control Module. The dedicated software calculates automatically the heat values and CO2 emission factor. This paper evaluates the repeatability of the CHNS/O data of petroleum products.

Abstract # 166 - Poster - 10/12/2021 - 10:00 AM - Poster Parkway

A SIMPLE MASS SPECTROMETRY BASED SCREENING TOOL FOR THE CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

Michael Jones - Waters Corporation
Bryan Katzenmeyer - Waters Corporation
Chris Henry - Waters Corporation
Eleanor Riches - Waters Corporation

Mass Spectrometry can be a powerful tool for routine analyses such as identification, monitoring or screening, but the need for expert users or extended chromatographic separations limits its deployment in manufacturing settings across the chemical industry.

In many screening methods, several targeted species are monitored, checking they are above or do not exceed a certain level.  In these cases, a simple test with a pass/fail output would be ideal.

Here we demonstrate deployment of a simple to operate mass detector with direct sampling inlet in workflows across the chemical industry.  This technique can be used for rapid routine monitoring in industrial samples such as polymers, lubricant oils and industrial chemical mixtures.

Abstract # 167 - Poster - 10/12/2021 - 1:00 PM - Poster Parkway

Improvement of Laboratory Productivity and Operational Efficiency using IoT/M2M

Andrew Fornadel - Shimadzu Scientific Instruments
Toshinobu Yanagisawa - Shimadzu
Koji Ono - Shimadzu
Takeshi Yoshida - Shimadzu
Yuji Maeda - Shimadzu
Kyoko Watanabe - Shimadzu
Takashi Inoue - Shimadzu

The COVID-19 pandemic imposed challenges on laboratories associated with continuing day-to-day operation while ensuring employee safety. As the world emerges from the pandemic, a “new-normal” has been established by which remote work and flexibility can lower operational costs and improve efficiency.

This poster outlines the implementation of technologies including internet of things (IoT) and machine-to-machine (M2M) communication in laboratory instruments. These technologies allow for remote operation including instrument start-up, analysis, and shutdown, diagnosis of and correcting for errors, and data management and reporting. The result is a remotely-operated laboratory that increases operational efficiency and flexibility for employees.

Abstract # 168 - Poster - 10/12/2021 - 2:00 PM - Poster Parkway

Comprehensive Sulfur Analysis of Fuels and Petrochemicals using Shimadzu’s SCD-2030

Andrew Fornadel - Shimadzu Scientific Instruments
Allison Mason - Shimadzu
Nicole Lock - Shimadzu
Yuan Lin - Shimadzu
Ian Shaffer - Shimadzu

There is no technique better for analysis sulfur compounds than gas chromatography with sulfur chemiluminescence detection (GC-SCD). It couples the separations capability of GC with a highly specific sulfur detector, enabling ppb-level sulfur detection.

GC-SCD is commonly used in the energy and petrochemicals industries. Sulfur compounds naturally occur in crude oil and natural gas and make their way into process streams. Accurate sulfur analysis ensures process efficiency, minimizes catalyst poisoning, and compliance with environmental regulations and product specifications.

This poster outlines some of the applications of Shimadzu’s innovative SCD-2030 for analysis of natural gas, gasoline, diesel, benzene, and transformer oil.

Abstract # 169 - Poster - 10/12/2021 - 10:00 AM - Poster Parkway

Analysis of FAME in Aviation Turbine fuels by GC/MS and HPLC-ELSD by IP 585 and IP 590

Andrew Fornadel - Shimadzu Scientific Instruments
Shailesh Damale - Shimadzu
Jessin Mathai - Shimadzu
Raj Makhamale - Shimadzu
Kumar Raju - Shimadzu

Aviation turbine fuels may be transported or stored in common-carrier, multi-product pipelines or tanks. As a result, the possibility of cross-contamination of fuels exists, which my result in a change in a fuels’ properties and performance. A common cross-contaminant are FAMEs compounds from biodiesels, which readily adhere to the walls of pipelines and tanks. The concentration of FAMEs in aviation fuels is specified in ASTM D1655 and DefStan 91-091 at 5 ppm. This poster outlines the use of GC/MS and HPLC-ELSD for the analysis of FAMEs in aviation turbine fuels in accordance with IP 585 and IP 590.

Abstract # 194 - Poster - 10/12/2021 - 1:20 PM - Poster Parkway

Polymer Characterization Technology Package- Analysis od Bio-Based Polyesters

Wei Sen Wong - Houston MJ associates, Inc.

The market share of bio-based plastics is small, but is rapidly increasing due to their biodegradability and their renewable feedstocks.  This poster will focus on two of the most popular types: Poly-Lactides (PLA) and Poly-Hydroxyalkanoates (PHA).  This new class of polar organic biopolymers presents a set of rather interesting challenges for some of the traditional molecular characterization techniques.  In this poster, we will present data on how we obtained accurate Molecular Weight Distribution and Intrinsic Viscosities for some example PLA and PHA materials.  We will also present Particle Size measurements, as this aspect may be relevant to their end use applications.

Abstract # 196 - Poster - 10/12/2021 - 2:20 PM - Poster Parkway

Monitoring of sulfur components by simultaneous analysis using GC-MS and GC-SCD

Nicole Lock - Shimadzu
Alan Owens - Shimadzu
Yusuke Takemori - Shimadzu
Andrew Fornadel - Shimadzu

Petroleum-based fuels contain sulfur compounds, which are controlled to ensure compliance with regulatory specifications and to minimize the catalyst poisoning during refining and in automobile exhaust systems.

Using a detector splitting system, sulfur compounds from fuels are separated by GC and simultaneously sent to an SCD and an MS for detection. This configuration allows for selective and equimolar analysis of sulfur compounds by SCD that would otherwise be overlooked using a TIC from the GC-MS. The mass spectrometer and associated spectral library can then be used to positively identify sulfur compounds by using known retention times from the SCD data.

Abstract # 198 - Poster - 10/12/2021 - 1:00 PM - Poster Parkway

Reliable Analysis of Sulfur Compounds in Diesel Fuel by GC-SCD

Nicole Lock - Shimadzu
Yu Nagao - Shimadzu
Riki Kitano - Shimadzu
Rebecca Kelting - Shimadzu
Pierre Giusti - Total Energies
Marco Piparo - Total Energies
Allison Mason - Shimadzu
Andrew Fornadel - Shimadzu

Analysis of sulfur compounds in diesel fuel ensures product compliance and protects refining infrastructure. The allowable concentration of sulfur in diesel fuels has been decreasing over time to comply with fuels and environmental regulations. This may necessitate use of sensitive and selective modes of analysis and detection, such as GC-SCD.

For the seven compounds tested, %RSD average 2.41, relative response factors ranged from 75-120, and recoveries ranged from 80-110%, This data presented here demonstrate the use of Shimadzu’s SCD-2030 for accurate, repeatable, and equimolar analysis of sulfur compounds in diesel fuel.

Abstract # 200 - Poster - 10/12/2021 - 2:20 PM - Poster Parkway

Analytical and Testing Solutions for the Emerging Hydrogen Energy Market

Andrew Fornadel - Shimadzu Scientific Instruments

The use of hydrogen as a fuel and energy storage medium is gaining traction due to its abundance, potential for cost-efficient production, and potentially lower carbon footprint than traditional fossil fuels. Development of the hydrogen economy will be incumbent on development of new technologies, novel analytical targets, and as a result, evolving analytical workflows. This poster provides an overview of the analytical and physical testing instruments that will be used in the hydrogen value chain, from production to transportation to end-use, including GC, GCMS, IC, Elemental Spectroscopy, MALDI-MS, EPMA, Universal Test Frames, and Micro CT analysis, among others.

Abstract # 201 - Poster - 10/12/2021 - 2:40 PM - Poster Parkway

A comparison of helium and nitrogen carrier gases for analysis of thiophene in benzene (ASTM D7011) by GC-SCD

Yuan Lin - Shimadzu

ASTM D7011 specifies the use of GC-SCD for the separation and quantification of trace levels of thiophene in benzene using either helium or nitrogen as a carrier gas. Due to cost concerns with the use of helium, we investigated the use of nitrogen. In comparison with the use of helium for the detection of thiophene in benzene, the use of nitrogen generated similar results and only required ~30 second longer analytical time. Based on similar analytical results, including linearity and sensitivity, the cost savings of using nitrogen versus helium far outweigh the slightly longer run times required.

Abstract # 202 - Poster - 10/12/2021 - 1:20 PM - Poster Parkway

Comparison of helium and hydrogen carrier gases for analysis of benzene, toluene, and aromatics in gasoline by GC/MS in accordance with ASTM D5769

Richard Karbowski - Shimadzu
Alan Owens - Shimadzu
Nicole Lock - Shimadzu
Andrew Fornadel - Shimadzu

Analysis of benzene, toluene, and aromatics in gasoline by ASTM D5769 using GC/MS ensures regulatory compliance and fuel quality. Recent costs associated with the use of helium carrier gas have left many laboratories exploring alternatives, such as hydrogen. In this poster, we compare results of ASTM D5769 analysis of gasoline using helium and hydrogen carrier gases. Area counts and repeatability for all compounds were similar for both carrier gases. Run times using H2 were ~22 minutes, whereas those for He were ~32 minutes. This improves sample throughput and reduces costs of operation.

Abstract # 205 - Poster - 10/12/2021 - 1:40 PM - Poster Parkway

Chemical fingerprinting of petroleum products using GC×GC–FID/TOF MS

Matthew Edwards - SepSolve Analytical
Aaron Parker - SepSolve Analytical
Laura McGregor - SepSolve Analytical

This study explores the use of parallel detection GC×GC to enable both targeted and non-targeted analysis of petrochemicals - with easy-to-use stencils for group-type classification by FID, while the availability of full-range TOF MS spectra enables confident identification of non-target species.  

We also demonstrate Tandem Ionisation TOF MS for simultaneous acquisition of both hard and soft EI spectra. Soft EI provides speciation of isomers not possible using conventional 70 eV ionisation – thus unlocking the fine detail of sample composition. The incorporation of soft ionisation also greatly enhances the use of filtering scripts for precise group-type analysis of important chemical classes.

Abstract # 214 - Poster - 10/12/2021 - 2:00 PM - Poster Parkway

Monitoring trace metals in oils according to ASTM D5185 using Shimadzu ICP-9820

Jon Peters - Shimadzu
Hamed Ataee-Esfahani - Shimadzu
Andrew Fornadel - Shimadzu

Monitoring trace metals in lubricating oils by ICP-OES is a sensitive and robust method for analyzing the oils and determining the condition of lubricant. In this work, we demonstrate that elemental analysis of oil samples can be performed with the Shimadzu ICP-9820 to ensure meeting all the criteria established in ASTM D5185. Carbon build-up on the torch is minimized allowing analysis of samples without an additional flow of oxygen and its vacuum-purged optical bench precludes the need for gas purge and reduces the start-up time. The successful analysis of oil samples showed the excellent precision and accuracy.

Abstract # 219 - Poster - 10/12/2021 - 2:20 PM - Poster Parkway

A Robust Column Set For The Analysis of Benzene and Toluene in Motor and Aviation Spark Ignition Fuel Containing Ethanol and/or Butanol Blended Fuels following ASTM D3606-20 Procedure B

Barry Burger - Restek Corp

Laboratories facing the challenge of quantifying both benzene and toluene in finished motor and aviation fuel containing ethanol must use the modified ASTM D3606-20 method mandated by the US EPA. This column set prevents the interference of benzene with ethanol thus assuring accurate quantification of benzene. Toluene quantitation is straight forward in that there are no co-elution issues. The scope of the method for quantifying benzene is 0.1% to 5% by volume and the toluene range is 2% to 20% by volume. With the addition of butanol blended fuel slowly entering the market, this same packed column set with a slight modification of the GC oven parameters and using methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) as the internal standard can be used for the analysis of butanol blended fuel.  There are no concerns of inconsistent retention times due to multiple flow changes as in procedure A.  All critical components and impurities are resolved.  The column set operates in the constant flow mode of 25 mls/minute of helium.  This packed column set will satisfy both part A and Part B in ASTM D 3606-20 method.

Abstract # 220 - Poster - 10/12/2021 - 3:00 PM - Poster Parkway

Analysis of Sulfur Compounds in Light Petroleum Liquids by Gas Chromatography with Pulsed Flame Photometric Detection

Cynthia Elmore - OI Analytical a Xylem brand
Mamdouh Farag - PerkinElmer Inc.

Sulfur can be naturally occurring in most petrochemical matrices. Many sulfur compounds in light petroleum liquids are odorous, can cause corrosion to equipment, inhibit or destroy catalysts used in production, and in general have a negative effect on product cost and quality. The ability to speciate and measure sulfur compounds in various products is invaluable in production and process control. A robust and sensitive method is needed for the analysis of sulfur compounds. ASTM D5623 provides guidance for measuring sulfur containing compounds in light petroleum liquids with a final boiling point of 230oC or lower. Gas chromatography combined with a Pulsed Flame Photometric Detector (PFPD) provides a reliable platform for this analysis. This poster will present instrument configuration and parameters for the detection and quantification of sulfur compounds in light petroleum hydrocarbons

Abstract # 231 - Poster - 10/12/2021 - 1:20 PM - Poster Parkway

Empore™ EZ-Trace SPE Workstation Produces a Clean and Efficient Extraction Under EPA Method 1664

Michael Apsokardu - CDS Analytical

EPA Method 1664 was designed to establish protocols for measuring oil and grease constituents in wastewater. “Oil and grease” is a broadly defined group of chemicals encompassing compounds such as glycerides, sterols, waxes, lipids, and nonvolatile hydrocarbons. Method 1664 has since been modified for use with solid phase extraction disks as simple and fast method for extraction of oil and grease from wastewater. This work demonstrates the extraction of standard compounds with the Empore™ Oil and Grease disk combined with the Empore™ EZ-Trace manual workstation to improve sample throughput. Clean extractions with high recoveries and reproducibility are shown.

Abstract # 237 - Poster - 10/12/2021 - 2:40 PM - Poster Parkway

Sampling and Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds at Refinery Perimeters Using US EPA Method 325

Xiaohui Zhang - CDS Analytical
Jason Robles - CAMSCO

Petroleum refining for processing heavier oils into gasoline and diesel fuels is a major industry in the United States but releases benzene and other toxic pollutants as part of the production process. The EPA has developed method 325 to establish protocols for refineries to measure the average benzene concentration at the perimeters of plants. 325A describes sampling methods for deployment and passive sampling onto clean thermal desorption tubes, while 325B describes laboratory analysis using thermal desorption GC-MS. This work demonstrates a full method solution with the combination of CAMSCO’s TubeTrack™ software and CDS Analytical’s 7550S thermal desorber.

Abstract # 243 - Poster - 10/12/2021 - 1:20 PM - Poster Parkway

ASTM Method D2887 option B: Optimize for Speed and Accuracy

Lee Marotta - PerkinElmer
Leeman Bennington - PerkinElmer

ASTM Method D2887 Option B allows for faster chromatography while maintaining the boiling point accuracy demanded by the industry.   Using new gas chromatography (GC) oven technology, this poster will demonstrate how to attain faster analysis and enhanced retention time repeatability, optimizing sample throughput while achieving excellent accuracy.  Correlation to physical distillation ASTM D86 on ”real world” samples will be provided.   Interlaboratory data will be presented using both helium and hydrogen carrier gases.

Abstract # 246 - Poster - 10/12/2021 - 3:00 PM - Poster Parkway

Determination of Olefins in Condensates and Upgraded Bitumen by Gas Chromatography (GC) using a Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) Detector.

Chris Goss - InnotechAlberta
Lee Marotta - PerkinElmer

The quantitation of olefins in petroleum products is of great industrial interest, especially for those involved in transportation of upgraded bitumen.  Olefins and di-olefins produced in small quantities during the thermal upgrading processes have a tendency to undergo polymerization reactions causing instability to the finished products.   The purpose of this research project was to identify and quantify olefins using Gas Chromatography (GC) and a Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) detector.  The focus matrix was condensate but it has been used on upgraded bitumen.    The research has resulted in method detection limits (MDLs) of more than 45 olefins and di-olefins including several conjugated olefins at low part per million (ppm) levels with greater than 90 percent accuracy. Another 20 olefins have been detected in various samples.   This presentation will discuss the research, analytical performance, and the results from sample data.

Abstract # 247 - Poster - 10/12/2021 - 3:00 PM - Poster Parkway

Analyzing Corrosive Gasses in Pipeline Products by Advanced Gas Chromatography (GC) Techniques

Chris Goss - InnotechAlberta
Lee Marotta - PerkinElmer

Sediment material from corrosion (containing magnetic iron (oxide based)) has been found accumulating in pumps, valves, on pigs and in line inspection tools. 

Some of the key players in corrosion are oxygen (O2), carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S).  These can cause corrosion when present in the low ppm to ppb range.  A robust, reliable method to detect trace levels of dissolved corrosion gases (O2, H2S and CO2) in pipeline products does not exist.  A method was developed that uses a liquid phase injection, a backflush so the fixed gas column does not get contaminated, and a sensitive detector.  Low ppm detection limits were achieved.

Abstract # 255 - Poster - 10/12/2021 - 10:00 AM - Poster Parkway

Real Time On-line Crude Assay and Process Property Measurements for Crude Blending and Crude Unit Distillation using Process NMR Technology

Paul Giammatteo - 4IR Solutions, Ltd
Shashi Mistry - Suncor Energy

This poster describes the On-Line Process Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) system installed in 2018.  The system provides real-time crude assay and property measurements on Canadian bitumen crudes The process NMR has improved operational performance and boosted crude throughput by 5+ percent.

Process NMR is applicable to conventional crude oil, bitumen blends, and/or any feedstock or blend from light to heavy.  Real time measurements of cut points, distillation fractions, densities, asphaltenes, water content, etc., provide actual performance and economic benefits at the tank farm, the refinery gate and at the crude distillation units. Installation and performance details will be provided.

Abstract # 256 - Poster - 10/12/2021 - 1:00 PM - Poster Parkway

Naphtha Cracking: Rapid On-line Separation Free Speciation and Property Measurements Using AI-60 Process NMR iModel™, and Model Gateway™.

Tal Cohen - 4IR Solutions, Ltd
Dror Albo - 4IR Solutions, Ltd
Paul Giammatteo - 4IR Solutions, Ltd

Ethylene and propylene production via naphtha cracking is enhanced by reliable, accurate and rapid simultaneous process NMR measurements of feed compositional analyses, density, total hydrogen content and distillation.  Without the need for columns and/or separation this AI-60 NMR application is capable of predicting up to 64 simultaneous measurements. Combining the AI-60 NMR’s measurements with iModel’s™, and Model Gateway’s™ AI based chemometrics and LIMS compatible data management platforms enables rapid, robust model development, validation and maintenance with full integration capability to most LIMS, DCS and optimization systems.  A most recent installation at a European ethylene plant will be described.

Abstract # 257 - Poster - 10/12/2021 - 1:00 PM - Poster Parkway

Refrigerant Manufacturing: Using Real Time Gas Phase Process NMR On-line Reaction Monitoring in the Presence of Hydrofluoric Acid.

Paul Giammatteo - 4IR Solutions, Ltd
Paul Giammatteo - 4IR Solutions, Ltd

Refrigerant manufacturing challenges any on-line analyzer for rapidly speciating and quantifying reactants, intermediates, and products in the presence of hydrofluoric acid concentrations ranging from 5 to 80+ percent.  For more than 3 years an AI-60 process NMR system has been providing such analyses at several reactor stages. 

This presentation will highlight applying on-line 19F spectral acquisition and analyses on gas phase samples.  NMR hardware configuration needed to safely analyze high HF concentration fluids (liquids or gases) as well NMR’s nuclei selectivity (hydrogen, fluorine, phosphorus) which enables 19F NMR to achieve significant improvements in speciation and quantitation accuracy will be presented.

Abstract # 276 - Poster - 10/12/2021 - 1:00 PM - Poster Parkway

Evaluation of Shell-Derived CaO Catalyst for Ultrasonication-Assisted Synthesis of Biodiesel

ifeanyi Nwobodo - Middle Tennessee State University
Ngee Chong - Middle Tennessee State University

The performance of CaO catalysts derived from the shells of oysters, mussels, lobsters, and chicken eggs was investigated. The shell-derived powders were calcined at 1000 oC for 4 hours to yield CaO whereas the CaO-ZnO mixed catalyst were prepared by wet impregnation followed by calcination at 700oC. The catalysts were characterized by XRF, XRD, TGA, SEM, FTIR and GC-MS. The CaO-ZnO catalysts showed better conversion efficiency compared to CaO catalysts for the transesterification of canola oil. The mixed oyster-based CaO-ZnO catalysts showed the highest catalytic activity with >90% biodiesel yield at 9:1 methanol-to-oil mole ratio within 10 minutes of ultrasonication.