2020 Posters

The following posters will be presented in the Exhibit Hall at the 2020 Gulf Coast Conference.

> View the 2019 posters.

Abstract # 100 - Poster

Automatic Transmission Fluids: What does the future hold for them?

Dr. Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Anson Law - Dept. Of Chemical Engineering, State univ. Of NY, Stony Brook

Automatic transmission fluids (ATF) are ubiquitously used for decades and is salient in optimizing a vehicle’s transmission. Internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles incorporate various transmissions, each with distinctive systems and dedicated fluids. Due to a significant ICE contribute to greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions, Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) are elevating environmental standards and becoming increasingly stringent. With an increase in pressure for an eco-friendly environment, there are growing incentives for hybrid and
all electric vehicles. Specifically, China and the US are two major frontrunners in this novel field and will continue developing. In this paper, we will discuss the future and practicality of ATFs in respect to a growing trend towards electric vehicles.

Abstract # 117 - Poster

Gas-to-Liquids: Time is of the Essence

Dr. Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Anson Law - Dept. Of Chemical Engineering, State univ. Of NY, Stony Brook

Gas-to-liquids (GTL) process is surfacing as a popular and viable method for producing liquid fuels with the current surplus of natural gas fields in the U.S. Compared to liquid fuels produced from crude oil, GTL fuels are superior in environmental friendliness and quality which is of paramount importance in today’s stringent environmental regulations. The problem lies in the unpredictability of available natural gas fields for upcoming years. Currently, small GTL plants are advantageous in every facet for exploiting stranded gas compared to large GTL plants which require heavy investments and large productions to be profitable. In this paper, we will dive into the current and future states of GTL and determine whether it is plausible for this process to be a viable and profitable alternative to crude oil.

Abstract # 118 - Poster

Measuring Apparent Viscosity at High-Temperature and High-Shear Rate (HTHS) by Multicell Capillary Viscometer

Dr. Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Stefan Lim - Dept. Of Chemical Engineering, State univ. Of NY, Stony Brook
Minjee Kim - Dept. Of Chemical Engineering, State univ. Of NY, Stony Brook
Brian Bick - Dept. Of Chemical Engineering, State univ. Of NY, Stony Brook
Jacky Jiang - Dept. Of Chemical Engineering, State univ. Of NY, Stony Brook
Anson Law - Dept. Of Chemical Engineering, State univ. Of NY, Stony Brook
Sarjeel Zaman - Dept. Of Chemical Engineering, State univ. Of NY, Stony Brook

Apparent Viscosity a tHigh-Temperature High-Shear Rate (HTHS) is a viscosity measurement of engine oils using nitrogen gas to pressurize multicell capillaries at 150 C. The measured flow time of the oil and the pressure is used to compute itsviscosity and shear rate. This method is salient in various applications, especially in heavy duty engines where the oil undergoes harsh conditions. These specifications are of paramount importance for safety and optimal performance. Lowering HTHS viscosity ostensibly conforms more towards stringent Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In this poster, we will demonstrate the basic principles and functions of the novel HTHS instrument and discuss its importance.

Abstract # 119 - Poster

Vapor Pressure Measurement Technology: Analysis of the effects of Temperature on Vapor Pressure for Various Oil Samples

Dr. Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Stefan Lim - Dept. Of Chemical Engineering, State univ. Of NY, Stony Brook
Philip Laccarino - Dept. Of Chemical Engineering, State univ. Of NY, Stony Brook

Vapor pressure is a crucial measurement in the fuel industry. Failure to account for the vapor pressure of a sample can lead to accidents that damage the environment and the health of others. In an attempt to regulate toxic vapors released into the air, some governments regulate the vapor pressure of petroleum products. A prime example of this is that the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) restricts the Reid vapor pressure of commercial gasoline to be lower than 7.0, 7.8, or 9.0 psi depending on the region during the summer months, and this shows that devices to quickly and easily measure the vapor pressure of fuels is a necessity in the industry. ASTM D6378, developed in 1999, uses a revolutionary method for measuring the vapor pressure of petroleum products and only requires about 10 mL of sample, as opposed to the upwards of 700 mL required for the Reid Vapor method. In this poster, we study the development of vapor pressure measurement from Reid up to the triple expansion method. We evaluate several samples provided by the various customers and investigate the efficiency and sustainability of a modern vapor pressure instrument that only requires a fractional amount of sample compared to its predecessor.

Abstract # 120 - Poster

Rapid Scanning for Phthalate Esters Relugated under RoHS3

Kevin Menard - Hitachi HighTech Sciences

In 2013, the European Union expanded the list of hazardous substances contained in the RoHS Directive. In addition, certain phthalate esters (PhEs), such as dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), and diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), will be categorized as RoHS 3 prohibited substances starting from July 2019. Although pyrolysis–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (PyGCMS) is a viable analytical method for the screening of PhEs, Hitachi’s new thermal desorption MS using a novel soft-ionization is quantitative, faster, and more convenient. The resulting screening method can be carried out by anyone within ten minutes.

Abstract # 126 - Poster

Design & Development of a New Innovative Test Method to Quantify Tackiness on a Wider Range of Greases

Dr. Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Stanley Zhang - Koehler Instrument Company

Greases are utilized in a wide range of applications to increase equipment efficiency or protect the components from friction and wear. Ensuring that adequate quantities of grease remain adhered to motile parts is critical to maintain performance and integrity. Determining grease tackiness which is, a measure of the adhesive properties of a grease sample, can provide crucial information about the compatibility of a certain grease with a specific task. Adhesive properties are the result of the high-weight polymers that greases are comprised of. Currently, the most common method of testing a grease’s tackiness is to use the finger test. The finger test is a qualitative test in which the tester places an unspecified amount of sample between their thumb and index finger and pulls them apart to determine if a grease is of low, moderate, or high tackiness. In this poster, we discuss the development of a new instrument and procedure analogous to the finger test, but with quantitative results. The principle of pulling apart grease with one’s fingers is standardized with two metal plates that can accurately measure the force exerted to separate the sample. We have run tests on numerous grease samples with our new instrument in an attempt to generate a new test procedure along with repeatability and reproducibility for this refined and unique technique.

Abstract # 127 - Poster

Determination of the Flow Pressure Measurement of Semi-solid Materials in Low Temperature Environments

Dr. Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Stanley Zhang - Koehler Instrument Company

Semi-solid substances such as lubricant greases are predominantly used to establish lubricant films on equipment in order to increase mobility and limit frictional wear. In low temperature environments, the viscosity of grease increases to such a degree that it hardens and ceases to flow. Low temperature greases are designed to maintain functional viscosity and lubricity at extreme negative temperatures. Currently, a few experimental techniques, such as the US Steel Grease Mobility, the Lincoln Ventmeter, and the Apparent Viscosity of Lubricating Greases (ASTM D1092) Methods are used to study the low temperature properties of greases. DIN Method 51805, also called the Kesternich Method, has been used in Europe to gain a better understanding of low temperature properties of greases. In this poster, we study the development of a new instrument used to test the low temperature flow of greases in accordance with the Kesternich Method. We evaluate a wide range of semi-solid materials and greases and compare their low temperature properties with the newly developed instrument and attempt to generate a new test procedure along with detailed statistics for this unique technique.

Abstract # 128 - Poster

What’s in Your Fuel? A Crash Course on the Various Additives Used in 2020 and How They Have Changed

Dr. Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.

There are an estimated 150,000 gas stations in the US and about 378 million gallons of gasoline are used daily in the United States. Despite this staggering number, most Americans do not know what’s in their gasoline. Modern motor gasoline is more than the low-boiling components obtained during refining of the crude oil, like most people believe. Motor gasoline is a complex formulation that in addition to containing the low-boiling hydrocarbons contains stabilizers, octane boosters, detergents, anti-freeze agents, and a multitude of other substances tailored to increase fuel efficiency, decrease harmful emissions, and maximize the functionality of the vehicles they fuel. These substances are referred to as additives and every major producer of gasoline has its own version of an ideal additives package. This poster will explain several types of fuel additives and how they have changed and will explore the direction the fuel additives industry is moving towards in the coming years.

Abstract # 129 - Poster

Development of an Automated Flocculation Titrimeter (AFT) to predict coking tendencies in refinery crude mixtures through colloidal stability quantification

Dr. Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Anson Law - Koehler Instrument
Philip Iaccarino - Koehler Instrument
William Monsees - Koehler Instrument

Flocculation is defined as the process of aggregation and coalescence into a flocculent, or clumped, mass. This term is commonly used when discussing the colloidal stability of asphalts, particularly in ASTM D6703, which is the standard test method for automated Heithaus titrimetry. Bituminous asphalts and heavy oil residues can be modelled as colloidal suspension, where the dispersed phase is the polar associated asphaltene moiety and the dispersing medium is the maltene solvent moiety. The flocculation point is determined spectroscopically, as the sample is titrated with isooctane. Newly developed Automated Flocculation Titrimeters (AFT) automate the determination of Heithaus values and can predict flocculation tendencies for various crude and oil samples, all while conforming to ASTM D6703. These AFT instruments can reliably predict which asphalts, petroleum residues, and heavy oils can be mixed without phase separation occurring. This can be utilized by refiners by using the Coking Indexes developed by Western Research Instituted, so a refinery can predict the refinery conditions that result in undesirable coke formation. This poster will discuss the theory of operation and design of the AFT instrument, and how AFT can be applied to an industrial refinery to help improve distillate yields.

Abstract # 130 - Poster

Funamental Study of the Effect of High Shear & Varying Temperatures for Engine Lubricants

Dr. Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Rui Chen - Koehler Instrument Company

Viscosity is a critical property of engine lubricants that can greatly affect the performance and lifespan of the engine. However, at high temperature and pressure conditions, the viscosities of these engine lubricants vary from the standard observed under normal conditions. As a result, it is vital to understand firsthand what properties the lubricants will exhibit at high temperature and high shear (HTHS) conditions. Engine oils are frequently subjected to temperatures of 150℃ with varying pressures that depend on the grading of the lubricant. Despite these conditions, there is limited understanding of the HTHS instrument available that can test motor oils readily and effectively. In this poster, the main focus will be to describe the theory of high shear and high temperature effects towards various lubricating oils. We will also focus on the design and construction from a theoretical viewpoint of an apparatus to subject engine oils to high shear under various temperature conditions. Our study will focus on understanding the fundamentals of the changes that increased temperature and shear puts on various lubricating oils.

Abstract # 131 - Poster

Use of color analysis to understand sample changes in STA samples.

Kevin Menard - Hitachi HighTech Sciences

During the testing in the STA, DSC, or DMA, the ability to observe physical changes is useful. While thermal methods give you information on transitions and bulk changes, interpretation is often tricky. Over the years, several techniques have been used to monitor and record these changes. Everything from view port on the low end to microscopes to low light cameras for chemiluminescence has been tried. Real view®* allows for visual inspection of samples, confirming the changes in the sample’s form or shape during the experiment. However, it also allows for color analysis using several Color changes are often slow, making it hard to judge the timing of the change. Quantifying the color of image makes it possible one to detect the slight color change without worrying about variation due to operator influence.