2019 Posters

The following posters will be presented in the Exhibit Hall at the 2019 Gulf Coast Conference.

> View the 2018 posters.

Abstract # 101 - Poster - South Lobby

Hyphenated TGA-GCMS Methods to Detect Residual Solvents

Kevin Menard - Mettler Toledo NA

Hyphenated methods for Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) have become increasingly popular as the need for more precise identification of compounds or contaminants increase.  We applied TG-GCMS to samples that had been exposed to various solvents and then allowed to dry for increasing periods of time. The TGA-GCMS technique was shown to be able to detect the solvent after long periods of drying. The work was then extended to cleaning solutions and leachables.

Abstract # 103 - Poster - South Lobby

ILSAC GF-6: A New Level of Performance for Engine Oils to Meet Changing Fuel Economy and Emission Standards

Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Cindy Klager - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Christin Abraham - Stony Brook University

With the continued modernization and improvements being made in the automotive industry, a new level of performance is required for engine oils. Engines are being built to be more durable, while also being designed for better fuel economy and to meet higher emission standards. The current GF-5 engine oil standard does not meet all the new requirements, specifically those of the USA Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) which will require the average fuel economy to be 54.5 MPG by the year 2025. While oils with lower viscosities can meet these fuel economy requirements, the oil must also maintain the engine durability, hence the need for the GF-6 performance levels.

Along with performance needs, the engine testing needs have also undergone a lot of recent changes. Older engine tests have been replaced with updated versions and brand new tests have been developed that will all need to be accounted for in the ILSAC GF-6 specification. Because of the significant number of new tests and requirements the GF-6 standard has seen numerous delays and is not expected to be finalized until Q2 of 2020. This poster will go deeper into the needs for the new GF-6 specifications along with the reasons why it has taken so long to achieve.

Abstract # 104 - Poster - South Lobby

How Oil Companies can use EDXRF Technology to comply with the EPA Tier 3 Standard Requirement of Low Sulfur Fuel and other Key Applications

Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Cindy Klager - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.

Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) is a fast, simple, and non-destructive elemental analysis technique for the measurement of liquids, powders, and solids. It is widely applied throughout the petroleum industry: upstream at the well site, mid-stream at pipelines, storage facilities and blending operations, and down-stream at the refinery. In 2017, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) implemented new regulations on the composition of fuel, which included changing the maximum allowable sulfur content from 30 parts per million (ppm) on an annual average basis down to 10 parts per million (ppm). With more stringent requirements, better tools and technology are needed to test the sulfur content of fuels, namely, gasoline and diesel. The EDXRF is the ideal analytical tool to accurately determine the sulfur content in fuel samples, conforming to not only ASTM D7220, but also meeting the requirements for the EPA Tier 3 program.

Furthermore, the EDXRF can be used to determine concentration of some elements such as manganese, lead, zinc, phosphorous, and calcium. The determination of manganese and lead content gives an indication of the anti-knock agent added to motor gasoline and Avgas to improve octane rating.  Whilst the determination of zinc, phosphorous, calcium, and sulfur give an indication of the antioxidant, and anti-wear agents in lubricating oils. This poster discusses the versatile application of the EDXRF which allows end-users to effectively ascertain correct results for this desired use, and conform to international testing standards.

Abstract # 105 - Poster - South Lobby

Recent Improvements for ASTM D86 Distillation Testing including the Development of a New Hydrocarbon Synthetic Standard

Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Cindy Klager - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Gary Lew - Spectrum Standards

ASTM D86 is the Standard Test Method for Distillation of Petroleum Products and Liquid Fuels at Atmospheric Pressure and has been used across the industry for decades. It is one of the oldest test methods under the ASTM D02 Jurisdiction and we are continuously looking for ways to improve the method. This poster will take a look at some of the most recent improvements and work being done to improve the precision, usability and overall robustness of ASTM D86.  

The ASTM D02 subcommittee on Volatility has launched a ruggedness study to begin testing new options for ASTM D86. With this study the committee hopes to eliminate the use of Mercury thermometers, which has been a widely discussed topic across ASTM D02, with Gallium thermometers. Another main goal of this ruggedness study is to test the newly developed Synthetic Reference Fluid. Currently toluene is used as a verification fluid for calibration and hexadecane is used at higher temperatures. The recently developed synthetic hydrocarbon standard will cover a wider range than what is currently being used. It is another goal of ASTM to harmonize standards with comparable international organization standards. In the case of ASTM D86 it is requested to harmonize it with the ISO 3405 test method for distillation. ISO recently conducted a study using higher level biodiesel blends (B30) which offered results that lie within the current precision statement. ISO will be adding distillate fuels containing up to 30% biodiesel to the scope of ISO 3405 which will also have to be taken into account during the study within ASTM in order to harmonize the methods. All of the aforementioned changes will bring overall improvements to the ASTM D86 test method.

Abstract # 107 - Poster - South Lobby

Recent Advances in Instrumentation for Viscosity Testing and a Comparative Analysis with Newly Developed Viscometry Instrumentation

Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Philip Iaccarino - Stony Brook University
Onur Diri - Omnitek B.V.

Many petroleum products are tested for their viscosity, thus making viscosity testing an essential focus in our industry. Therefore, it is important to hold a high standard for the instrumentation used for viscosity testing. Recently, there has been a push to improve the viscosity instrumentation available in the market, to help simplify the testing procedure while maintaining accurate results. These new instruments are easy to use with automatic operations, produce accurate and consistent results, can test many samples per hour, can handle a wide variety of samples, use only a small amount of sample and cleaning solvent, and are manageable to service. Additionally, instrumentation using both Ubbelohde and Houillon tube designs has seen these improvements. These advances as well as recent changes in the ASTM methods are discussed in this paper. When considering ASTM methods, the newly developed instruments can be used for ASTM D445, ASTM D446, ASTM D2170, ASTM D2171, ASTM D2270, and ASTM D7279. Overall, the recent advances in viscosity instrumentation will serve our industry efficiently and effectively for years to come.

Abstract # 108 - Poster - South Lobby

A Review of Biodiesel Testing Specifications and their Use in Middle Distillate Fuels

Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Philip Iaccarino - Stony Brook University
Kareem Mehdi - Stony Brook University

When considering middle distillate fuels, biodiesel is a good alternative as a result of its carbon neutral footprint, sustainability, and economic viability. Recently, there has been improvements in biodiesel quality testing, by developing better test methods. Without sufficient testing, biodiesel can create various issues when used as a fuel, such as engine clogging. One of such test methods is ASTM D6751, the Standard Specification for Biodiesel Fuel (B100) Blend Stock and Distillate Fuel. This specification sets requirements for B100 fuels, which must be tested in accordance with various test methods.

ASTM D6751 is an important method for biodiesel fuels since biodiesel production and consumption is growing in the United States, and the test method ensures that the biodiesel meets the consumer’s standards. With growing concerns of climate change and an increasing demand for fuel sources, biodiesel will be seen as a more tasteful fuel alternative for years to come. This poster will discuss the current state of biodiesel in the fuel market, and will review the significance requirements and recent changes of the various biodiesel test methods referenced in ASTM D6751.

Abstract # 109 - Poster - South Lobby

Vapor Pressure Measurement Technology: Analysis of the effects of Temperature on Vapor Pressure for Various Oil Samples

Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Tom Karis - TEK Data Systems
Philip Iaccarino - Stony Brook University

Vapor pressure is a property that is commonly tested for in the petroleum industry. In recent years, instrumentation to test for vapor pressure has seen some tremendous developments, which greatly improve the testing procedure. These new instruments align with ASTM D5191 and ASTM D6378, utilize automated procedures and only require small amounts of sample. By revolutionizing the vapor pressure testing field, the recently developed instruments have become the new standard for vapor pressure testing.

Making use of the new instrumentation, the effects of temperature on the vapor pressure of a sample can be studied rapidly and accurately. Generally, as the temperature of a sample increases, the vapor pressure also increases. The degree of the vapor pressure increase varies depending on the properties of the sample: its molecular weight and chemical composition are two of these properties. This poster will use one of these recently developed vapor pressure instruments to measure the vapor pressure of various oil samples, and will analyze the changes across a temperature range for those samples. The paper will also discuss thermodynamic characterization of base oil viscosity and vapor pressure.

Abstract # 110 - Poster - South Lobby

Evaluation of a Piston Ring Coating on the Oscillation Wear and Friction with use of Unique Pre-Screening SRV Instrumentation

Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Philip Iaccarino - Stony Brook University
Vincent Colantuoni - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.

In an engine, the piston group accounts for approximately 50% of frictional losses, contributing to significant fuel inefficiencies. With market demands for higher and higher fuel performances, the piston ring only increases in its load. With the use of a cost-effective Schwing, Reib, Verschleiss (SRV) instrument, the friction, wear, and load carrying capacity can be pre-screened, to determine which components perform better in an engine. By further understanding the piston-cylinder-contact assembly, engineers and scientists can further improve the piston ring and cylinder liner interaction.

The recently advanced SRV laboratory technique can also be used as a tool to study and solve various tribological problems. It is a diverse model for evaluating the friction and wear properties of greases, lubricants, coatings, additives, and other materials. Additionally, the SRV instrument is in compliance with many ASTM, ISO, and DIN testing standards. As a result of its versatile application, the SRV has the ability to be implemented in many practical setups. This paper will dwell into detail of how this technique can be used for evaluating a variety of piston ring coatings.

Abstract # 119 - Poster

Eco-based Lubricants and Greases: A Study that Looks at both Sides of the Coin

Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Henry Takizawa - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.

The importance of environmentally sustainable products has become paramount in recent years due to the adverse effects of climate change on our environment. As more and more countries push for legislation regulating the use of fossil fuels and their related byproducts, it has become a challenge for companies within these industries to find eco-friendly alternatives to fossil fuels that provide the same quality of product and are also economically viable. The research conducted for this paper will be used to discern the advantages and disadvantages of bio-lubricants and to ultimately determine if they can be used as a viable substitute to conventional mineral based lubricants. While this may seem like a subject that has been well studied, there are always pros and cons related to a sea change and moving to biolubricants and greases in lieu of conventional products is no exception. In this paper we will evaluate both sides of the coin, looking at the real versus perceived environmental benefits, potential applications, and means of production surrounding vegetable oil based lubricants ( and greases ) to see if they are really sustainable processes. We will also study the applicability of these biobased lubricants in the conditions and environments where conventional lubricants are commonly used and see how they perform.

Abstract # 120 - Poster

Gas-to-Liquids: The Future of Fuel Technology or a Mere Pipe Dream

Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Anson Law - Koehler Instrument Company, INC

The process of gas-to-liquids, GTL, converts natural gases into useful hydrocarbon liquids such as diesel and gasoline through catalysis. GTL process is accomplished by first converting natural gas to synthetic gas through partial oxidation, CH­4+½O2→CO+2H2­, and then to liquid hydrocarbons using a catalyst. At first glance, this process is more environmentally friendly and produces superior quality products compared to using crude oil. However, the uncertainty of large-scale production and investment risks due to high estimated capital costs leaves GTL in doubt. In this paper, we will study the pros and cons of the fuel produced by the GTL process compared to using crude oil with regards to their quality, environmental benefits, and viability/profitability. Looking at both sides of the coin, we will discuss in detail whether GTL is a reliable, profitable, and pragmatic method to supply world’s energy needs.

Abstract # 122 - Poster

Development of a screening method using a translatory oscillation tribometer (SRVĀ®) to test extreme pressure and anti-wear properties of gear oils

Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Cindy Klager - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.

Gear Oils are used in a wide range of applications and depending on the application, different performance factors of the lubricant are important and must be evaluated. For many applications, including industrial machinery and automotive driveline components, it is ideal to have an antiscuff gear lubricant, or an extreme pressure (EP) type of lubricant. These types of lubricants typically have additives to enhance their load-carrying capacity making them ideal for heavy load, slow speed conditions.

Testing the scuffing load and extreme pressure properties of a gear oil is not a simple test. A test rig was developed by FZG (the Technical Institute for the Study of Gears and Drive Mechanisms of the Technical University in Munich, Germany) to measure the scuffing load capacity of lubricants as per ISO 14635. While this test provides vital information in regards to scuffing load, it is a very expensive and time consuming test to run and is not feasible to test every gear oil formulation that one might need. To help narrow down which gear oils should be tested using the FZG rig, a test was developed using the Translatory Oscillation Tribometer (SRV®) to screen gear oils and in addition, give complementary information by measuring the coefficient of friction, wear scar, and load carrying capacity.

The SRV® Tribometer is an invaluable tool for evaluating friction and wear properties which can now be applied to EP and Anti-wear (AW) testing of gear oils. The method used is based on DIN 51834-4 and is done on a translatory oscillation tester equipped for parallel movement. The results of the EP and AW tests on the SRV test rig are able to help characterize and differentiate gear oils in minimal time. The results are a good indication of how the lubricant will behave and serve as a pre-screener to determine which oils should go on for further bench tests and field use. In addition to the pre-screening results, this method will also yield results of coefficient of friction, wear volume and estimations for the load carrying capacity. This poster will show how the tests were developed, how the results compare to the FZG test and how the SRV can be used to provide a meaningful evaluation of gear oils.