2021 Posters

The following posters will be presented in the Exhibit Hall at the 2021 Gulf Coast Conference.

The 2020 Gulf Coast Conference was rescheduled due to COVID.

View the 2019 posters.

Abstract # 100 - Poster

Automatic Transmission Fluids: What does the future hold for them?

Dr. Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Anson Law - Dept. Of Chemical Engineering, State univ. Of NY, Stony Brook

Automatic transmission fluids (ATF) are ubiquitously used for decades and is salient in optimizing a vehicle’s transmission. Internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles incorporate various transmissions, each with distinctive systems and dedicated fluids. Due to a significant ICE contribute to greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions, Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) are elevating environmental standards and becoming increasingly stringent. With an increase in pressure for an eco-friendly environment, there are growing incentives for hybrid and
all electric vehicles. Specifically, China and the US are two major frontrunners in this novel field and will continue developing. In this paper, we will discuss the future and practicality of ATFs in respect to a growing trend towards electric vehicles.

Abstract # 118 - Poster

Measuring Apparent Viscosity at High-Temperature and High-Shear Rate (HTHS) by Multicell Capillary Viscometer

Dr. Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Stefan Lim - Dept. Of Chemical Engineering, State univ. Of NY, Stony Brook
Minjee Kim - Dept. Of Chemical Engineering, State univ. Of NY, Stony Brook
Brian Bick - Dept. Of Chemical Engineering, State univ. Of NY, Stony Brook
Jacky Jiang - Dept. Of Chemical Engineering, State univ. Of NY, Stony Brook
Anson Law - Dept. Of Chemical Engineering, State univ. Of NY, Stony Brook
Sarjeel Zaman - Dept. Of Chemical Engineering, State univ. Of NY, Stony Brook

Apparent Viscosity a tHigh-Temperature High-Shear Rate (HTHS) is a viscosity measurement of engine oils using nitrogen gas to pressurize multicell capillaries at 150 C. The measured flow time of the oil and the pressure is used to compute itsviscosity and shear rate. This method is salient in various applications, especially in heavy duty engines where the oil undergoes harsh conditions. These specifications are of paramount importance for safety and optimal performance. Lowering HTHS viscosity ostensibly conforms more towards stringent Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In this poster, we will demonstrate the basic principles and functions of the novel HTHS instrument and discuss its importance.

Abstract # 119 - Poster

Vapor Pressure Measurement Technology: Analysis of the effects of Temperature on Vapor Pressure for Various Oil Samples

Dr. Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Stefan Lim - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Philip Iaccarino - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Tom Karis - TEK Data Systems Aromas

Vapor pressure is a crucial measurement in the fuel industry. Failure to account for the vapor pressure of a sample can lead to accidents that damage the environment and the health of others. In an attempt to regulate toxic vapors released into the air, some governments regulate the vapor pressure of petroleum products. A prime example of this is that the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) restricts the Reid vapor pressure of commercial gasoline to be lower than 7.0, 7.8, or 9.0 psi depending on the region during the summer months, and this shows that devices to quickly and easily measure the vapor pressure of fuels is a necessity in the industry. ASTM D6378, developed in 1999, uses a revolutionary method for measuring the vapor pressure of petroleum products and only requires about 10 mL of sample, as opposed to the upwards of 700 mL required for the Reid Vapor method. In this poster, we study the development of vapor pressure measurement from Reid up to the triple expansion method. We evaluate several samples provided by the various customers and investigate the efficiency and sustainability of a modern vapor pressure instrument that only requires a fractional amount of sample compared to its predecessor.

Abstract # 120 - Poster

Rapid Scanning for Phthalate Esters Relugated under RoHS3

Kevin Menard PhD. - Hitachi High-Technologies-Science, America Inc. Dallas, TX USA
Greg Rigby - Hitachi High-Technologies-Science, America Inc., CA USA
Yuichi Kasai - Hitachi High-Tech Science Corporation, Tokyo Japan
Shin Okawa - Hitachi High-Tech Science Corporation, Tokyo Japan
Masataka Ohgaki - Hitachi High-Tech Science Corporation, Tokyo Japan

In 2013, the European Union expanded the list of hazardous substances contained in the RoHS Directive. In addition, certain phthalate esters (PhEs), such as dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), and diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), will be categorized as RoHS 3 prohibited substances starting from July 2019. Although pyrolysis–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (PyGCMS) is a viable analytical method for the screening of PhEs, Hitachi’s new thermal desorption MS using a novel soft-ionization is quantitative, faster, and more convenient. The resulting screening method can be carried out by anyone within ten minutes.

Abstract # 126 - Poster

Design & Development of a New Innovative Test Method to Quantify Tackiness on a Wider Range of Greases

Dr. Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Stanley Zhang - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Stefan Lim - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.

Greases are utilized in a wide range of applications to increase equipment efficiency or protect the components from friction and wear. Ensuring that adequate quantities of grease remain adhered to motile parts is critical to maintain performance and integrity. Determining grease tackiness which is, a measure of the adhesive properties of a grease sample, can provide crucial information about the compatibility of a certain grease with a specific task. Adhesive properties are the result of the high-weight polymers that greases are comprised of. Currently, the most common method of testing a grease’s tackiness is to use the finger test. The finger test is a qualitative test in which the tester places an unspecified amount of sample between their thumb and index finger and pulls them apart to determine if a grease is of low, moderate, or high tackiness. In this poster, we discuss the development of a new instrument and procedure analogous to the finger test, but with quantitative results. The principle of pulling apart grease with one’s fingers is standardized with two metal plates that can accurately measure the force exerted to separate the sample. We have run tests on numerous grease samples with our new instrument in an attempt to generate a new test procedure along with repeatability and reproducibility for this refined and unique technique.

Abstract # 127 - Poster

Determination of the Flow Pressure Measurement of Semi-solid Materials in Low Temperature Environments

Dr. Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Stanley Zhang - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Stefan Lim - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.

Semi-solid substances such as lubricant greases are predominantly used to establish lubricant films on equipment in order to increase mobility and limit frictional wear. In low temperature environments, the viscosity of grease increases to such a degree that it hardens and ceases to flow. Low temperature greases are designed to maintain functional viscosity and lubricity at extreme negative temperatures. Currently, a few experimental techniques, such as the US Steel Grease Mobility, the Lincoln Ventmeter, and the Apparent Viscosity of Lubricating Greases (ASTM D1092) Methods are used to study the low temperature properties of greases. DIN Method 51805, also called the Kesternich Method, has been used in Europe to gain a better understanding of low temperature properties of greases. In this poster, we study the development of a new instrument used to test the low temperature flow of greases in accordance with the Kesternich Method. We evaluate a wide range of semi-solid materials and greases and compare their low temperature properties with the newly developed instrument and attempt to generate a new test procedure along with detailed statistics for this unique technique.

Abstract # 128 - Poster

What’s in Your Fuel? A Crash Course on the Various Additives Used in 2020 and How They Have Changed

Dr. Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Stefan Lim - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.

There are an estimated 150,000 gas stations in the US and about 378 million gallons of gasoline are used daily in the United States. Despite this staggering number, most Americans do not know what’s in their gasoline. Modern motor gasoline is more than the low-boiling components obtained during refining of the crude oil, like most people believe. Motor gasoline is a complex formulation that in addition to containing the low-boiling hydrocarbons contains stabilizers, octane boosters, detergents, anti-freeze agents, and a multitude of other substances tailored to increase fuel efficiency, decrease harmful emissions, and maximize the functionality of the vehicles they fuel. These substances are referred to as additives and every major producer of gasoline has its own version of an ideal additives package. This poster will explain several types of fuel additives and how they have changed and will explore the direction the fuel additives industry is moving towards in the coming years.

Abstract # 129 - Poster

Development of an Automated Flocculation Titrimeter (AFT) to predict coking tendencies in refinery crude mixtures through colloidal stability quantification

Dr. Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Anson Law - Koehler Instrument
Philip Iaccarino - Koehler Instrument
William Monsees - Koehler Instrument

Flocculation is defined as the process of aggregation and coalescence into a flocculent, or clumped, mass. This term is commonly used when discussing the colloidal stability of asphalts, particularly in ASTM D6703, which is the standard test method for automated Heithaus titrimetry. Bituminous asphalts and heavy oil residues can be modelled as colloidal suspension, where the dispersed phase is the polar associated asphaltene moiety and the dispersing medium is the maltene solvent moiety. The flocculation point is determined spectroscopically, as the sample is titrated with isooctane. Newly developed Automated Flocculation Titrimeters (AFT) automate the determination of Heithaus values and can predict flocculation tendencies for various crude and oil samples, all while conforming to ASTM D6703. These AFT instruments can reliably predict which asphalts, petroleum residues, and heavy oils can be mixed without phase separation occurring. This can be utilized by refiners by using the Coking Indexes developed by Western Research Instituted, so a refinery can predict the refinery conditions that result in undesirable coke formation. This poster will discuss the theory of operation and design of the AFT instrument, and how AFT can be applied to an industrial refinery to help improve distillate yields.

Abstract # 130 - Poster

The Science Behind Viscosity Measurements at High Temperature and High Shear

Dr. Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Rui Chen - Koehler Instrument Company

Viscosity is a critical property of engine lubricants that can greatly affect the performance and lifespan of the engine. However, at high temperature and pressure conditions, the viscosities of these engine lubricants vary from the standard observed under normal conditions. As a result, it is vital to understand firsthand what properties the lubricants will exhibit at high temperature and high shear (HTHS) conditions. Engine oils are frequently subjected to temperatures of 150℃ with varying pressures that depend on the grading of the lubricant. Despite these conditions, there is limited understanding of the HTHS instrument available that can test motor oils readily and effectively. In this poster, the main focus will be to describe the theory of high shear and high temperature effects towards various lubricating oils. We will also focus on the design and construction from a theoretical viewpoint of an apparatus to subject engine oils to high shear under various temperature conditions. Our study will focus on understanding the fundamentals of the changes that increased temperature and shear puts on various lubricating oils.

Abstract # 131 - Poster

Use of color analysis to understand sample changes in STA samples.

Kevin Menard PhD. - Hitachi High-Technologies-Science, America Inc. Dallas, TX USA
Eita Shimoda - Hitachi High-Tech Science Corporation, Tokyo Japan
Susumu Ito - Hitachi High-Tech Science Corporation, Tokyo Japan

During the testing in the STA, DSC, or DMA, the ability to observe physical changes is useful. While thermal methods give you information on transitions and bulk changes, interpretation is often tricky. Over the years, several techniques have been used to monitor and record these changes. Everything from view port on the low end to microscopes to low light cameras for chemiluminescence has been tried. Real view®* allows for visual inspection of samples, confirming the changes in the sample’s form or shape during the experiment. However, it also allows for color analysis using several Color changes are often slow, making it hard to judge the timing of the change. Quantifying the color of image makes it possible one to detect the slight color change without worrying about variation due to operator influence.

Abstract # 133 - Poster

Evaluation of Extreme Pressure and Anti-Wear Properties Using a Translatory Oscillation Tribometer (SRV®) to Screen Gear Oils for Scuffing Loading Testing

Dr. Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Stanley Zhang - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc

Gear oils are a category of high viscosity lubricants primarily used for transmissions and differentials in automobiles or other industrial machinery. It is common practice for gear lubricants to contain various additives to enhance their load-carrying capacity and performance in specific applications. In particular, machinery operating under heavy load, slow speed conditions often require anti scuff gear lubricants or extreme pressure (EP) lubricants to provide protection against adhesive and frictional wear. The Translatory Oscillation Tribometer (SRV®) is an invaluable instrument for evaluating friction and wear properties which can be applied to EP and anti-wear (AW) testing of gear oils. EP and AW tests are conducted on a translatory oscillation tester equipped for parallel movement, following the methodology of DIN 51834-4. The results are able to characterize and differentiate gear oils based on their EP and AW properties, which can serve as a pre-screener to determine which oils should go on for further bench tests and field use. This allows the SRV® Tribometer to function as a tool to screen gear oils and narrow down which gear oils should undergo expensive and time-consuming tests, such as the FZG standard scuffing loading test, which measures the scuffing load capacity of lubricants as per ISO 14635. In addition to pre-screening gear oils, the SRV® Tribometer is capable of yielding results for the coefficient of friction, wear volume and estimations for the load carrying capacity. This poster will show how the tests were developed, how the results compare to the FZG scuffing load test and how the SRV® Tribometer can be used to provide a meaningful evaluation of gear oils.

Abstract # 134 - Poster

Development of Application-Oriented Friction and Wear Tests for Industrial Greases

Dr. Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Vincent Colantuoni - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Philip Iaccarino - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Stanley Zhang - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.

The use of semi-solid lubricants is integral in the effort to protect against the frictional wear and scuffing between contacting surfaces in relative motion. The wide range of lubricating grease properties and their respective applications necessitates the diversification of existing screening methods. Established test methods and standards for lubricants can serve as the basis for screening greases based on their chemical properties, but has limited carry over to determining the behavior of greases in real-life operating conditions. The Translatory Oscillation Tribometer (SRV®) is a newly developed instrument that can conduct tests according to established test methods and standards, as well as application-oriented testing procedures, which can be used for evaluating friction, wear, and extreme pressure properties of lubricating greases. This poster will highlight application-oriented friction and wear tests through test scenarios involving the effect of wear particles on the lubricity of a lubricating grease, high temperature fretting behavior of industrial greases, and the simplified examination of rolling/sliding friction of high performance greases that can be used as a FE8/FE9 rolling bearing pre-screening test.

Abstract # 135 - Poster

Overcoming the Detrimental Effects of Inorganic Salts in Crude Oil

Dr. Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Sarjeel Zaman - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Stanley Zhang - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.

Crude oils are complex mixtures that consist of a wide range of naturally occurring hydrocarbons that may differ in appearance, composition, consistency, and color. These oils are uniquely classified by hydrocarbon composition, distillation, yield, quality, sulfur content, or API gravity. However, crude oils often contain several compounds and impurities that need to be removed during the refining process. These include sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen compounds, trace metals, and inorganic salts. In particular, inorganic salts within raw crude can cause fouling and plugging of pipelines and heat exchangers. Additional damage can result from serious hydrochloric acid and ammonium chloride corrosion from the decomposition of chloride salts. This leads to substantial economic loss due to increased capital expenditure to repair or replace equipment. Production down-time during maintenance periods and energy inefficiency can reduce yield and further decrease profits. The wide range of problems caused by excess salt content in crude oil necessitates the measurement and removal of inorganic salts to meet industry standards. The Koehler K23060 Salt in Crude Analyzer is a newly developed instrument that can determine salt concentration in a crude oil sample conforming to the ASTM D3230 method in a quick and reliable manner to prevent complications with equipment or yield during the refinery process. This poster will primarily focus on the hazardous effects of inorganic salts during the petroleum refinery and transportation processes and how the K23060 Salt in Crude Analyzer can be used to determine excess salt concentration for crude oil desalting.

Abstract # 136 - Poster

Water Washout and Resistance to Water Spray: The Key Tests Needed to Determine a Greases Ability to Act as a Sealant

Dr. Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Isaac Kim - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.

 Lubricating greases have a wide array of uses due to their high viscosity and shear thinning properties. Grease is a semi-solid lubricant allowing for it to stay in position in some scenarios where a lubricating oil would not. In many applications such as metalworking operations or the marine industry where there is a frequent ingress of water, greases are also used as a sealant. In these scenarios, the most salient property of grease is its ability to seal out water. Some obstacles facing this property is the amount of grease that washes away due to water, also known as the water washout of grease as well as the ability of the grease to adhere to a surface when subjected to direct water spray. Thus, it is vital to ensure that greases, under such conditions, remain unaffected by water in order to decrease the wear and failure of machinery. ASTM test methods, ASTM D1264, for Determining the Water Washout Characteristics of Lubricating Greases, and ASTM D4049 for Determining the Resistance of Lubricating Grease to Water Spray, allow for precise and repeatable means to ascertain the qualifications of grease when under the impingement of water. In this poster, we will analyze the function and properties of a novel instrument, which utilizes ASTM D1264 for characterization of greases as well as equipment employing ASTM D4049 to determine the water spray properties of a grease. 

Abstract # 138 - Poster

Gas-to-Liquids: Time is of the Essence

Dr. Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Anson Law - Dept. Of Chemical Engineering, State univ. Of NY, Stony Brook

Gas-to-liquids (GTL) process is surfacing as a popular and viable method for producing liquid fuels with the current surplus of natural gas fields in the U.S. Compared to liquid fuels produced from crude oil, GTL fuels are superior in environmental friendliness and quality which is of paramount importance in today’s stringent environmental regulations. The problem lies in the unpredictability of available natural gas fields for upcoming years. Currently, small GTL plants are advantageous in every facet for exploiting stranded gas compared to large GTL plants which require heavy investments and large productions to be profitable. In this paper, we will dive into the current and future states of GTL and determine whether it is plausible for this process to be a viable and profitable alternative to crude oil.

Abstract # 140 - Poster

Reactive Pyrolysis-GC/MS of Polymers in a Steam Environment Used to Study Potential Fuel

Karen Sam - CDS Analytical
Ben Landas - CDS Analytical

Pyrolysis under reactive atmospheres and catalysts have been studied as methods of converting biomass to a more useable fuel, including pyrolysis under the presence of steam. It is possible to investigate the conversion of biomass to bio-oil on a microscale, using reactant gas, catalysts, and pressures up to 500psi with pyrolysis-GC-MS. A recently developed pyrolyzer has the capability of introducing steam as a reactant gas.  In this study, analytical pyrolysis GC/MS using steam as a reactant gas will be studied on a natural material to see if its presence changes pyrolysis products, creating more favorable fuel or gases.  

Abstract # 141 - Poster

Nanotechnology Innovations Aid the Lubricants and Grease Industry

Dr. Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Sarjeel Zaman - Stony Brook University
George Diloyan - Nanotech Industrial Solutions

The lubricants industry is a part of a growing movement in the manufacturing world to adopt the use of nanotechnology in their products. Nanoparticle additives in lubricants have long been shown to drastically improve a variety of physical and chemical properties, in both the lubricant itself and in the contact surface to which the lubricant is applied. This poster stands to be a comprehensive literature review that will take a close look into the potential for use of nanomaterials in various lubricating oils. To be more specific, two key research papers will be primarily used to analyze the anti-wear and friction-reducing tribological properties of nanoparticle additives in a water-based solvent. Furthermore, this poster will present modern developments in oil formulations, the mechanisms by which nanoparticle additives interact with contact surfaces, and a comparison of the many different types of nanoparticle constituents.

Abstract # 142 - Poster

Cloud and Pour Point Testing: Innovative Automatic Instrument Development That Can Serve as an Effective Alternative to Referee Methods

Dr. Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Rui Chen - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.

Many petroleum products are exposed to a wide range of operating temperatures, and these products must perform effectively at all temperatures. When looking for optimal performance, top quality fuels and lubricants are necessary. The term “cold flow properties” is commonly used when discussing and characterizing the behavior of petroleum products at low temperature.  Some of these properties include the cloud point, pour point, freezing point, and cold filter plugging point. Operation at temperatures near or below the cloud and pour points may result in damage to equipment, so these properties are commonly used as a measure of the lowest temperature for a product’s utility. Therefore, it is paramount for the cloud and pour point to be clear so that these suboptimal conditions can be avoided during operation.

Test methods for determining the cloud and pour points are some of the oldest in the industry, with ASTM D97 first being approved in 1927. The referee test methods for determining the cloud and pour points is performed as per ASTM D2500 and D97, respectively. Recently, new cloud and pour point test methods and instruments have been developed that take advantage of more modern technology and offer countless advantages when compared to the referee methods, such as automated test procedures. ASTM D5771 and D5950 are two of these methods, which are the test methods for determining the cloud point and pour point of petroleum products as per the optical detection stepped cooling method and the automatic tilt method, respectively. This poster will discuss the development of new instruments that comply with ASTM D5771 and D5950, and will explain the advantages these instruments have when compared to the referee methods for cloud and pour point testing.