2022 Posters

The following posters will be presented in the Exhibit Hall at the 2022 Gulf Coast Conference.

View the 2021 posters.

Abstract # 102 - Poster - 10/11/2022 - 9:00 AM - Convention Center Walkway

Analysis of Cloud and Pour Points of Fuels Under Low Temperatures

Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Matthew Yen - Dept. Of Chemical Engineering, State Univ. of NY, Stony Brook
Stanley Zhang - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.

In low temperature conditions, a fuel tends to experience a substantial increase in viscosity,
which significantly impacts its flow characteristics and combustibility. An aid in identifying the
proper operating conditions for that specific fuel is the determination of the cloud and pour
points for that fuel. The cloud point represents the moment when a fuel undergoes a change from
a transparent appearance to a hazy, or cloudy appearance. The cloud point is an important
indicator of a fuel’s performance at lower temperatures. The pour point is the point at which the
viscosity of a fuel is too high and the fuel ceases to pour or flow. In this poster, we will examine
the K7700X Automatic Cloud and Pour Point Analyzer and its applications as an effective tool
for the determination of the cloud and pour point of petroleum-derived products. The aim is to
highlight the intuitiveness of this technology and the importance of ensuring that the appropriate
fuels are being used in the correct environment.

Abstract # 103 - Poster - 10/11/2022 - 9:20 AM - Convention Center Walkway

The Significance of the Determination of Salt Content in Crude Oil

Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Yunfan Lu - Dept. Of Chemical Engineering, State Univ. of NY, Stony Brook
Stanley Zhang - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.

Crude oil often contains different inorganic salts, such as chlorides of sodium, calcium, and magnesium. These salts are typically in the form of salt crystals dissolved in the water that is emulsified in the crude oil and bring various problems to petroleum refining industries. The large concentration of salt in crude can contribute to the mechanical cogging of furnace tubes, condensers, and lines via the formation of deposits. To avoid complications and corrosion during transport or storage, it is important to analyze the salt concentration in crude, so that the crude can undergo an appropriate desalting process before further progressing in the refinery process. The Koehler K23060 Salt in Crude Analyzer is an innovative, handheld instrument that can be intuitively used to measure the concentration of salts in crude oil. The instrument measures the conductivity of a solution of crude oil in a polar solvent and compares the result with a calibration curve of known salt mixtures, which will determine the salt content in the crude sample in accordance with ASTM D3230.

Abstract # 104 - Poster - 10/11/2022 - 9:35 AM - Convention Center Walkway

Determination of the Tribological Characteristics of Materials with the Pin on Disk Tester

Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Nathaniel McQuiston - Hofstra University
Stanley Zhang - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.

The science of tribology is concerned with the movement of surfaces relative to one another. This boils down to the three main areas of friction, lubrication, and wear. Determining the tribological characteristics of how materials interact allows us to evaluate the materials we use based on such characteristics. The Pin on Disk Friction & Wear Tester precisely and accurately determines the tribological data between materials under a wide range of temperatures and normal loads. The Pin on Disk Friction & Wear Tester has been around for a long time, but it is still being used to do cutting edge research. It functions with a stationary pin being held in contact with a disk that is rotating at a specified speed. The Pin on Disk Friction & Wear Tester can run both dry and flooded tests, meaning that the testing surface can be flooded with a desired lubricant, like oil, to run tests with desired materials. The speeds and normal force are set by the user, as well as the quantity and type of lubricant if necessary. Tribological data, such as the frictional force between the materials, is measured in real time; temperature and wear can be evaluated in relation to these test materials as well.

Abstract # 105 - Poster - 10/11/2022 - 12:30 PM - Convention Center Walkway

Applications of Flash Point Testing for the Safety and Transportation of Volatile Materials

Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Thoren Giannuzzi - Dept. Of Chemical Engineering, State Univ. of NY, Stony Brook
Anthony Schevon - Dept. Of Chemical Engineering, State Univ. of NY, Stony Brook
Stanley Zhang - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.

Determining the flash point of a combustible liquid is a primary component of safety management. The data obtained from the closed-cup flash point test provides crucial information on how a flammable liquid should be stored and transported. The flash point is the lowest temperature at which a liquid’s vapor will briefly ignite with the presence of an ignition source. Flammable liquids tend to have a flash point under 38℃, while combustible liquids tend to have a flash point over 38℃, causing them to be hazardous materials, thus there are strict regulations implemented to ensure the materials are correctly managed. In the petroleum industry, gasoline and diesel are commonly used volatile substances, thus knowing their flash points is integral to avoid accidents and ensure safe operating conditions. Koehler Instrument Company’s K71000 Automatic Pensky-Martens Closed Cup Flash Point Analyzer is an automated flash point tester that determines the flash point of flammable substances, such as biodiesel or mixtures of petroleum liquids with solids. By utilizing the closed-cup method, all vapors evaporated from the liquid are contained. This simulates a scenario where a stored liquid is accidentally introduced to an ignition source in storage. This poster will highlight the importance of flash point testing and evaluate the operating procedures of the PMCC flash point instrument.

Abstract # 106 - Poster - 10/11/2022 - 12:50 PM - Convention Center Walkway

Design and Development for a New ASTM Test Technique to Study Fuel Corrosion

Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Sihan Li - Dept. Of Chemical Engineering, State Univ. of NY, Stony Brook
Anthony Schevon - Dept. Of Chemical Engineering, State Univ. of NY, Stony Brook
Stanley Zhang - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.

The accelerated iron corrosion test (AICT) is a method used to determine if an iron component is affected by corrosion in the presence of water. Determining possible corrosion while using certain petroleum products is crucial to ensure the safe transport and storage of fuels and oils. In the case where there is excess corrosion, consequences will arise causing serious damage to the pipeline and leading to unnecessary expenses. Koehler Instrument Company’s latest AIC tester can efficiently and accurately determine iron corrosion of petroleum products in accordance with ASTM D7548. The results produced can be compared with the standard test result to determine the degree of corrosion. Considerations, such as picking the appropriate material to store or transport fuels or adding the right amount of inhibitor to the pipeline, must be examined in an attempt to decrease the degree of corrosion. These corrective actions are implemented if the presence of rust formed during the test exceeds a certain threshold. This poster will highlight the importance of iron corrosion testing and describe the operating procedures for this AIC tester.

Abstract # 108 - Poster - 10/11/2022 - 1:10 PM - Convention Center Walkway

Significance of Measuring the Water Washout Characteristics of Lubricating Greases

Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Thoren Giannuzzi - Dept. Of Chemical Engineering, State Univ. of NY, Stony Brook
Anthony Schevon - Dept. Of Chemical Engineering, State Univ. of NY, Stony Brook

The newly designed Water Washout test, whichfully conforms to ASTM D1264, is used to measure the ability of a grease to remain intact in a bearing when the sample is either submerged or sprayed with a water jet. This test measures the percent of grease removal within a specified period of time under predetermined conditions. The results obtained from the water washout test are applied to the selection process of grease in order to enhance the life of a machine by allowing outdoor machinery to require less frequent replacement and repair. When exposed to water contamination, such as by rain, mechanical failures occur at an increased rate through corrosion, oxidation, rust, or bearing failure. These mechanical failures can be partially avoided if a proper water-resistant grease is used, which adheres better to surfaces and can thus prevent certain corrosion and rust. Grease can be water-resistant in three alternative ways, either by being water repellent, insoluble or by mixing with water without any changes to the chemical or physical properties. The newly designed Water Washout Tester finds the percentage of grease washed out from a ball bearing within an hour when under constant pressure from a water stream, thus the standard technique can be used to compare a variety of greases for how well they can withstand water exposure. This poster will showcase the usage of the water washout test and the importance of the test when applied to the life of a machine.

Abstract # 109 - Poster - 10/11/2022 - 1:30 PM - Convention Center Walkway

Assessment of the Wear Aspects of the Boundary Lubrication Properties via a Newly Designed Ball-on-Cylinder Lubrication Evaluator (BOCLE)

Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Sihan Li - Dept. Of Chemical Engineering, State Univ. of NY, Stony Brook
Anthony Schevon - Dept. Of Chemical Engineering, State Univ. of NY, Stony Brook

Determination of frictional wear is crucial as wear can become a major problem in vehicle engines as prolonged metal-metal exposure occurs. The frictional wear between the surfaces is advanced under high-speed rotation resulting in a permanently shortened lifespan of the engine components. In order to prevent wear and save unnecessary expenses, lubricant is applied to reduce the friction. Lubricity can be defined as how easy a lubricant such as oil or fuel can protect engine components from wear. The level of lubricity of an oil or fuel can be determined accurately using Koehler Instrument Company’s K94190 instrument. The instrument is pre-loaded with standard ASTM D5001 method that uses Ball-on-Cylinder Lubricity Evaluator (BOCLE) to determine the lubricity. Assessing the wear aspects and choosing a proper fuel and lubricant, allows for the prolonging of machinery lifespan in addition to a reduction in diagnostic and replacement costs. This poster will highlight the importance of lubricity testing and describe the innovations in the newly designed BOCLE instrument.

Abstract # 110 - Poster - 10/11/2022 - 1:50 PM - Convention Center Walkway

Determination of the Octane Number of Fuels Using a Near IR Technology Adopted into a Handheld Octane Analyzer

Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Daisy-Ann Norman - Dept. Of Chemical Engineering, State Univ. of NY, Stony Brook
Stanley Zhang - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.

The newly developed handheld fuel analyzer helps determine the Pump Octane Number (PON), Research Octane Number (RON), and Motor Octane Number (MON) of unleaded gasoline, ethanol blended gasoline, leaded gasoline, and diesel fuels, as well as the Cetane Number. This handheld device has been shown to have excellent accuracy and repeatability comparable to ASTM engine test techniques (ASTM D2699, D2700). ASTM D2699 is a test method for the Research Octane Number of Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel, while ASTM D2700 is a test method for the Motor Octane Number of Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel. The octane number scale ranges from 0 to 120, while this test method's working range for R.O.N. is between 40 to 120. Typical commercial fuels for spark-ignition engines have R.O.N ratings of 88 to 101. Testing of gasoline blend stocks or other process stream ingredients might result in R.O.N. ratings at various levels. Over 60 countries across the world utilize handheld octane analyzers, with about 45 states in the United States using them. This design can test the octane value of gasoline quickly, easily, and precisely without causing any damage to the sample. Handheld octane analyzers have dominated portable gasoline analysis in fuel labs, research institutions, repair shops, and pipelines, along with being extremely easy and convenient to use. Improved NearIR optics and a user-friendly interactive display have also made it possible to determine fuel quality quickly and accurately at the pump, rack, terminal, and in production. The details of this innovative technique will be discussed in this poster.

Abstract # 111 - Poster - 10/12/2022 - 9:00 AM - Convention Center Walkway

Determination of the Hard to Quantify Property of Tackiness for a Variety of Lubricating Greases Using a Newly Developed Tackiness Tester

Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Matthew Yen - Dept. Of Chemical Engineering, State Univ. of NY, Stony Brook
Stanley Zhang - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.

The tackiness of a lubricant grease is defined as the cohesiveness or stickiness of the grease and its ability to form thread-like structures when being pulled apart. The simplest method to determine the tackiness is through the finger test. This test is conducted by placing a small amount of your sample to be squeezed between your thumb and index finger and slowly pulling them apart. This allows for the tester to gain a qualitative estimate of low, moderate, or high tackiness. However, the subjective nature of this test causes variability in test results and a lack of standardization. In this poster, we observe how the K95200 Tackiness Tester conducts a similar type of test as the finger test but will produce a quantitative result by calculating the amount of force exerted to separate the sample between its two metal plates after its compression. This innovative and easy-to-use instrument is able to produce accurate and repeatable quantitative results for grease tackiness through the use of a standardized technique.

Abstract # 112 - Poster - 10/12/2022 - 9:20 AM - Convention Center Walkway

Why EDXRF is a Unique Tool in the Petroleum Chemist Toolbox

Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Nathaniel McQuiston - Hofstra University
Stanley Zhang - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.

The determination and analysis of the content of crude oils and and other petroleum products is an integral part of the refinement process, ensuring that the metal content of the crude oil is at an acceptable level. If the presence of certain metals in the crude oil is too high, it can create imperfections during the refining process. Additionally, it is imperative to monitor the chlorine content, as the presence of chlorine can lead to corrosion if it goes unchecked through refinement. The EDXRF Elemental Analyzer is equipped to make these determinations rapidly and with a great deal of qualitative detail and quantitative accuracy. The instrument is capable of determining the total sulfur content and total lead content in petroleum products, such as diesel fuel, jet fuel, kerosene, other distillate oil, naphtha, residual oil, lubricating base oil, hydraulic oil, crude oil, unleaded gasoline, and gasohol. The EDXRF features a high performance silicon drift semiconductor detector, peltier electronic cooling, and an optimum balance of spectral resolution and high count rate. Due to the EDXRF’s speed and precision, it can be used repeatedly at multiple points before refinement in order to ensure the most desirable content of crude oil. In addition to gathering such measurements, the EDXRF is fitted with a suite of software that enables thorough analysis of data. 

Abstract # 113 - Poster - 10/12/2022 - 9:40 AM - Convention Center Walkway

Use of a Newly Designed Shear Stability Tester to Study Lubricants Subjected to Mechanical Shearing

Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Nicole Turner - Hofstra University
Stanley Zhang - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.

Proper lubrication is critical for maintaining the integrity of industrial equipment and instrumentation. Majority of multigrade lubricants contain viscosity modifiers to raise the viscosity index (VI) and ensure that the lubricant can form a sufficiently thick coating to protect machinery from various forms of degradation. The majority of viscosity modifiers (VM) are composed of polymers that are vulnerable to shear thinning. Shear thinning can reduce the viscosity of a lubricant by an entire ISO grade, therefore putting moving parts at risk of deterioration. To guarantee the fluid’s viscosity is stable, shear stability tests are conducted to evaluate the fluid’s characteristics under shear stress and temperature changes. Determining the shear stability of a fluid is the capability of an oil or lubricant to maintain its viscosity characteristic over a series of applications due to mechanical shearing. The nature of these tests, describes the effects shearing has on viscosity parameters, whether change in temperature differences or on recurrence of machine use. Such use has the chance to result in a decrease in acceptance values for that specific fluid. When fluids and lubricants are subjected to varied temperature changes, testing methods are performed to ensure those of high viscosity index are still acceptable when placed under mechanical shearing. The newly designed Shear Stability Tester is an instrument designed to test oils and other fluids under shearing on intervals of 30 cycles up to 120 cycles starting from 0. Based on the results from each test, oils that experience a smaller viscosity reduction during the course of the test are considered to have greater shear stability compared to oils with a relatively significant decline. This poster discusses the new instrument and the ASTM technique developed to measure shear stability.

Abstract # 114 - Poster - 10/12/2022 - 10:05 AM - Convention Center Walkway

Significance of Reducing Air Contamination in Lubricants in Operating Machinery & How This Property Can Be Studied in the Laboratory

Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Yunfan Lu - Dept. Of Chemical Engineering, State Univ. of NY, Stony Brook
Stanley Zhang - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.

Air contamination in the fluid is a major concern that can cause severe damage to machinery and negatively influence its reliability. In most hydraulic and lubricating oil systems, lubricants will be polluted by contaminants in four main forms, dissolved, entrained, free, and foam. These contaminants can cause numerous problems, such as excessive noise, thermal degradation, and cavitation, and can also shorten equipment lifespan and compromise lubricant integrity. To avoid complications and corrosion when selecting lubricants for varied applications, it is important to measure their air-release properties, so that they can undergo an appropriate air releasing process prior to their application.The Koehler K88530 Air Release Value Analyzer is an innovative instrument that can beintuitively used to determine air-release property. Its highly integrated and automatic advantages lead it to become not only powerful but also user-friendly. With its high-performance screen, users can operate this machine precisely and read all necessary data easily. The analysis method this device used is ASTM D3427 Standard Test Method for Air Release Properties of Petroleum Oils. The unit heats samples to a specified test temperature before blowing them with compressed air. Subsequently, the instrument can measure the air bubbles’ “separation time” by the time required for the air contamination to decrease to 0.2% by volume after stopping airflow. Then it will give users the result directly and also provide further data storage and transmission support.

Abstract # 115 - Poster - 10/12/2022 - 10:25 AM - Convention Center Walkway

Standardized Assessment of Flow Properties of Lubricating Greases at Below Ambient Temperatures & Development of a New Grease Flow Tester

Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Gavin Thomas - Dept. Of Chemical Engineering, State Univ. of NY, Stony Brook
Stanley Zhang - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.

In the modern industrial world lubricating greases are a necessity for the assurance that vehicles and machinery are operating to their fullest potential. Lubricant greases are composed of base oil, thickeners, and additives which can yield varying performances given unique characteristics contingent on the type and proportion of each of the three components in each grease. However, most of these greases in practical use are optimized for ambient temperatures and would become viscous in low temperatures causing pumpability and machine performance to suffer due to decreased lubricating effect of the grease throughout a vessel. Commercial lubricant greases optimized for low temperatures are rare due to the lack of instruments able to properly test lubricants according to the DIN51805 Kesternich method to ensure validity of experimental results. The K95300 Low Temperature Grease Flow Tester has been developed in accordance with the Kesternich method in order to overcome this deficiency and provide an economic and safe way to measure the flow properties of various lubricating greases in extreme cold temperatures to find which are most suitable for operational use. This poster will examine how this instrument can reliably determine the flow properties of various lubricating greases at adjustable cold temperatures in a manner pursuant with the Kesternich Method.

Abstract # 116 - Poster - 10/12/2022 - 10:45 AM - Convention Center Walkway

Development of a Microscale Vapor Pressure Analyzer to Assess the Dangers of Fumes and its Possible Health Effects

Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Oskar Rzucidlo - Dept. Of Chemical Engineering, State Univ. of NY, Stony Brook
Stanley Zhang - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.

Petroleum products are widely used throughout transportation and industrial manufacturing sectors, but are known to be associated with causing various health issues due to their emitted fumes. According to statistical data, there are multiple cases of deaths reported which were attributed to hydrocarbon gasses and vapors. Measurement of the vapor pressure of petroleum-derived products is essential for obtaining an indication of how a fuel will perform under different operating conditions. Various government agencies regulate the specification of petroleum products and maximum vapor pressure limits are legally mandated in certain areas for air pollution control. Acquiring accurate and reliable vapor pressure measurements is important for ensuring the proper transport and storage of petroleum products as well.The K24870 Automatic Microscale Vapor Pressure Analyzer can determine the total vapor pressure exerted in a vacuum by air-containing, volatile, liquid petroleum products, automotive spark-ignition fuels, hydrocarbons, and hydrocarbon-oxygenate mixtures in accordance with ASTM D5191 and D6378. This newly designed instrument utilizes the Triple-Expansion Principal for vapor pressure determination, which involves the volumetric expansion of tested samples by X times in three steps. By taking the difference of the total pressure after final expansion and the partial pressure from dissolved air, the vapor pressure of the sample is calculated. This innovative Microscale Vapor Pressure Analyzer is fully automated and only requires a small sample size of 1 mL for testing and 2.5 mL for rinsing. The instrument is easy-to-use and is the ideal tool for vapor pressure determination to avoid safety hazards and health implications and promote proper petroleum management.

Abstract # 117 - Poster - 10/12/2022 - 12:30 PM - Convention Center Walkway

Development of a Microscale Vapor Pressure Analyzer to Assess the Dangers of Fumes and its Possible Health Effects

Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Oskar Rzucidlo - Dept. Of Chemical Engineering, State Univ. of NY, Stony Brook
Stanley Zhang - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.

Petroleum products are widely used throughout transportation and industrial manufacturing sectors, but are known to be associated with causing various health issues due to their emitted fumes. According to statistical data, there are multiple cases of deaths reported which were attributed to hydrocarbon gasses and vapors. Measurement of the vapor pressure of petroleum-derived products is essential for obtaining an indication of how a fuel will perform under different operating conditions. Various government agencies regulate the specification of petroleum products and maximum vapor pressure limits are legally mandated in certain areas for air pollution control. Acquiring accurate and reliable vapor pressure measurements is important for ensuring the proper transport and storage of petroleum products as well.The K24870 Automatic Microscale Vapor Pressure Analyzer can determine the total vapor pressure exerted in a vacuum by air-containing, volatile, liquid petroleum products, automotive spark-ignition fuels, hydrocarbons, and hydrocarbon-oxygenate mixtures in accordance with ASTM D5191 and D6378. This newly designed instrument utilizes the Triple-Expansion Principal for vapor pressure determination, which involves the volumetric expansion of tested samples by X times in three steps. By taking the difference of the total pressure after final expansion and the partial pressure from dissolved air, the vapor pressure of the sample is calculated. This innovative Microscale Vapor Pressure Analyzer is fully automated and only requires a small sample size of 1 mL for testing and 2.5 mL for rinsing. The instrument is easy-to-use and is the ideal tool for vapor pressure determination to avoid safety hazards and health implications and promote proper petroleum management.

Abstract # 118 - Poster - 10/12/2022 - 12:30 PM - Convention Center Walkway

Advances in Nanotechnology Related to the Chemical Industry

Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Sharon Lin - Dept. Of Chemical Engineering, State Univ. of NY, Stony Brook
Blerim Gashi - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.

Nanotechnology is a type of technology that fits these three qualities; it must be between 1 and 100 nanometers, must be useful due to its size, and can be easily manipulated. Recently, nanotechnology has been found useful in a variety of industries like energy production, lubrication, medical problems, and agriculture. In this poster, the main focus is on the advances in nanotechnology in lubrication. It was found through the disc-on-disc test that the nanoparticles in lubricants allow for more efficient use as it decreases the coefficient of friction and reduces wear. It was discovered that when the lubricant contains nanoparticles, there has been evidence of the rolling effect, mending effect, polishing effect, and the formation of a protective film. With these effects, nanoparticles were able to help lubricants decrease the coefficient of friction and reduce wear. Additionally, the addition of nanoparticles is cheap which means that production costs will increase dramatically due to the addition of nanoparticles. Therefore, nanoparticles are cheap and efficient in lubrication.

Abstract # 126 - Poster - 10/11/2022 - 9:00 AM - Convention Center Walkway

Nitrogen determination of Lubricants according to ASTM 5291 by an automatic elemental analyzer using argon carrier gas

Liliana Krotz - Thermo Fisher Scientific

The nitrogen content in lubricants is periodically monitored for quality control, as described in ASTM D5291 - the Official Method for carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen in petroleum products and lubricants.  The Thermo ScientificTM FlashSmartTM Elemental Analyzer (EA), based on the dynamic combustion of the material, requires no sample digestion or toxic chemicals while providing efficient and fully automated nitrogen determination of lubricants. To lower the operational cost, the FlashSmart EA can be operated with Argon instead of helium. Here we demonstrate the analytical performance of the FlashSmart EA and the repeatability according to the Official Method.

Abstract # 128 - Poster - 10/11/2022 - 9:20 AM - Convention Center Walkway

Finding needles in chemical haystacks: Chemometric workflows to streamline GC×GC-TOF MS data analysis

Matthew Edwards - SepSolve Analytical
Laura McGregor - SepSolve Analytical
Bob Green - SepSolve Analytical
Kevin Kyle - Schauenburg Analytics

Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) has been proven to be the ideal platform for the analysis of complex petrochemical samples, especially when coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS), as it delivers improved separation and confident compound assignment.

Historically, GCxGC data processing has been perceived as being difficult to use, and extremely time-consuming.  However, advances in chemometric software have overcome this challenge to ensure that data processing is no longer the ‘bottleneck’ of analytical workflows.

Here, we demonstrate how tile-based chemometrics can be applied to automatically uncover differences between complex chromatograms, delivering meaningful information across a range of GCxGC applications.

Abstract # 145 - Poster - 10/11/2022 - 9:35 AM - Convention Center Walkway

Fast and efficient group-type (PiPNA) classification of jet fuels

Matthew Edwards - SepSolve Analytical
Kevin Kyle - Schauenburg Analytics
Laura McGregor - SepSolve Analytical
Bob Green - SepSolve Analytical

In this study, we will demonstrate the use of a flow-modulated GC×GC system for group-type (PiPNA) classification of jet fuels. We will also show the added value of parallel detection by FID and TOF MS. FID is the gold standard for robust quantitative analysis, while TOF MS ensures accurate group-type boundaries are delineated while also allowing for identification of trace adulterants or contaminants, such as sulfur species.

Abstract # 146 - Poster - 10/11/2022 - 12:30 PM - Convention Center Walkway

IMPROVED PERFORMANCE FOR MATERIALS QC ANALYSIS IN A NEW MODULAR HPLC SYSTEM

MICHAEL JONES - Waters Corporation

  Advanced materials formulations have radically transformed in recent years, as breakthroughs in chemistry and physics offer, for example, lighter yet stronger, resistant yet breathable materials along with many other feature combinations once thought impossible.  The constant evolution of material science and technology challenge existing means of measurement and lead to the development and application of improved analytical methods.  Analytical instrumentation must evolve and improve to keep pace with the demands of increasingly stringent testing regulations.

There are many limitations / considerations / challenges that need to be addressed for any method used for materials formulation QC analysis. Specificity needs to be considered.  The resolution achieved between analytes, isomers and with matrix components needs to be optimized. The repeatability and reproducibility requirements of the method must be met.  If possible deploying a single platform for HPLC, UHPLC and SEC separations would be beneficial

In this poster presentation we will show how utilizing a novel modular liquid chromatography system for method development activities can improve productivity and efficiency in materials formulation QC testing. 

The increased system performance translates into method improvements across HPLC, UHPLC and SEC separations. Analyses described show utility in polymer formulation testing, electronics and semiconductor quality control as well as fine and specialty chemicals.  Analysis using all methods demonstrated on the novel system provide users with enhanced resolution and reduced method cycle times.  

Abstract # 153 - Poster - 10/11/2022 - 12:50 PM - Convention Center Walkway

Determination of impurities in lithium battery materials using the Thermo Scientific iCAP PRO Series ICP-OES

Simon Nelms - Thermo Fisher Scientific
Meredith Conoley - Thermo Fisher Scientific
Sebastian Weyermann - Thermo Fisher Scientific

To meet the trace and major element analysis needs for QA/QC measurement of battery materials both ICP-OES and ICP-MS can be used, but the high sample matrix concentration and generally less demanding detection limit requirements for cathode, electrolyte and anode material testing mean that ICP-OES is often suitable. In this presentation, the performance of a recently launched ICP-OES instrument, the Thermo Scientific™ iCAP™ PRO Series ICP-OES, for battery material analysis will be discussed.  In particular, results will be presented for impurity and matrix element quantification in cathode materials and elemental impurity quantification in graphite samples for battery anodes.

Abstract # 156 - Poster - 10/11/2022 - 1:10 PM - Convention Center Walkway

Fast, accurate and robust analysis of crude oil samples according to ASTM D7691 and ASTM D5708 methods using ICP-OES

Simon Nelms - Thermo Fisher Scientific
Meredith Conoley - Thermo Fisher Scientific
Sebastian Weyermann - Thermo Fisher Scientific

Elemental analysis of crude oil is essential for quality control, equipment condition monitoring, waste recycling, and post-processing in the oil production process.  ICP-OES provides advantages for elemental analysis of oil samples, such as speed and robustness, and for these reasons it’s a recommended technique for measuring a range of oil types using standard procedures issued by ASTM International.  In this poster, the performance of ICP-OES for analysis of crude oil and other petrochemical samples, following ASTM Methods D7691 and D5708, is described. Fast analysis for all the target analytes was achieved using ICP-OES coupled with a dedicated oil autosampler system.

Abstract # 161 - Poster - 10/11/2022 - 1:30 PM - Convention Center Walkway

A Simple MS Based Screening Tool for the Chemical Manufacturing Industry

Bryan Katzenmeyer - Waters Corporation
Michael Jones - Waters Corporation
Christopher Henry - Waters Corporation
Eleanor Riches - Waters Corporation

Mass Spectrometry can be a powerful tool for routine analyses such as identification, monitoring or screening, but the need for expert users or extended chromatographic separations limits its deployment in manufacturing settings across the chemical industry. In many screening methods, several targeted species are monitored either to check they are above or do not exceed a certain level. In these cases, a simple monitoring test with a pass/fail output would be ideal. In this work we demonstrate how a simple to operate mass detector with direct sampling inlet can be deployed in workflows across the chemical manufacturing industry. This technique can be used for rapid routine monitoring in industrial samples such as polymers, formulated lubricant oils, and industrial chemical manufacturing mixtures.

Abstract # 162 - Poster - 10/11/2022 - 1:50 PM - Convention Center Walkway

Development of Fluids to Improve Testing Performance and Efficiency of GC and FTIR and to Enable Low Temperature Calibration

David Antonuccio - Halocarbon LLC
Siddhartha Shenoy - Halocarbon LLC

Halocarbon has developed a line of engineered fluids specifically for use in analytical chemistry.   These fluids are based on Halocarbon PCTFE technology, making them non-flammable, nonreactive and safe.   Halocarbon’s HDP-1112 fluid can help prolong gas chromatography columns, facilitating the safe and efficient removal of difficult sample remnants from GC inlets and columns.  Halocarbon recently launched InfinX Calibration Fluid 0.8 as an ultra-low temperature bath fluid for use in thermometric sensor calibration.   Similarly, other Halocarbon PCTFE fluids show no absorption of IR wavelengths between 4000 and 1300 cm-1, making them ideal for analyzing hydrocarbon based materials by IR analysis.  

Abstract # 166 - Poster - 10/11/2022 - 9:00 AM - Convention Center Walkway

Automated structural analysis for real unknown compounds by combining artificial intelligence (AI) with GC-HRTOFMS

Masaaki Ubukata - JEOL Ltd.
Ayumi Kubo - JEOL Ltd.
Kenji Nagatomo - JEOL Ltd.
Azusa Kubota - JEOL Ltd.

Electron ionization (EI) is the most popular method used in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in which compounds are identified by mass spectral database search using EI mass spectra. Because the molecular ions are often weak or absent in EI mass spectra, identification of unknowns can be difficult by EI alone. We have a newly developed automated structure analysis method using artificial intelligence (AI) to predict EI mass spectra from chemical structures. We have already created a predicted EI mass spectra database for around 100 million compounds using our AI model. We will introduce this automated structural analysis method in detail.

Abstract # 167 - Poster - 10/12/2022 - 9:20 AM - Convention Center Walkway

Rapid and Sensitive Determination of Biofuel Sugars by Ion Chromatography

Paul Voelker - Thermofisher Scientific

Described is a High-Performance Anion-Exchange chromatography with Pulsed Amperometric Detection (HPAE-PAD) for accurate determination of common sugars in biomass such as acid-hydrolyzed corn stover. The method uses the Dionex CarboPac SA10 column with electrolytically generated hydroxide eluent, enabling fast analysis of the biofuel sugars. The method has a linear range suited for handling high concentration samples with minimal sample treatment, high precisions, and acceptable recoveries. The disposable gold working electrode provides consistently high detector response, assuring greater instrument-to-instrument and lab-to-lab reproducibility. The HPAE-PAD and Dionex CarboPac SA10 column can be adopted for on-line monitoring of sugar levels in biomass applications.

Abstract # 168 - Poster - 10/12/2022 - 9:40 AM - Convention Center Walkway

Helium Shortage - Alternative Sample Preparation Approaches

Daniel Pecard - Bruker AXS LLC

Helium is essential to measure liquid samples with XRF, but the current shortage makes it necessary to explore other sample preparation techniques.

This poster will present an overview of alternative preparation techniques for samples that are usually measure in He atmospere.

Abstract # 187 - Poster - 10/12/2022 - 10:05 AM - Convention Center Walkway

Capillary option for ASTM D3606

Jan Pijpelink - Restek Corporation

“ASTM method D3606 is used to separate benzene and toluene in spark ignition fuels. Analysts may use capillary (option A) or packed (option B ) columns for this method. The capillary option uses two columns connected in series, where the first column is the nonpolar dimethylpolysiloxane phase (Rxi-1ms, cat# 13338) and the second is a polar ‘wax’ phase (Stabilwax, cat# 10657 ) column. After toluene is eluted from the first column, the first column is backflushed while an auxiliary EPC maintains flow through the second column. The complicated setup associated with the ASTM D3606 capillary option may make the method unappealing, but the results show the excellent separation of target analytes. We used Restek’s Rxi-1ms and Stabilwax to separate target analytes in D3606 standard 8.5.2 and a sample of gasoline, and generated helpful tips for getting started and troubleshooting this method. Future work may consider the performance of this column set for a full method validation, and potential limitations.”

Abstract # 196 - Poster - 10/12/2022 - 10:25 AM - Convention Center Walkway

Using flow-modulated GC×GC technology coupled with GC-Orbitrap mass spectrometry for the profiling of automotive diesel

Jason Cole - Thermo Fisher Scientific
Xin Zeng - Thermo Fisher Scientific

To chemically characterize complex samples such as fuels, with often isobaric species, detection techniques such as high-resolution accurate mass (HRAM) mass spectrometry can be used to help identify compounds. GC×GC is a technique that allows for separation of a samples chemical components by two different column phases, increasing the potential chromatographic resolving power by an order of magnitude. A key part of any GC×GC system is the modulator. To retain the separation achieved in the first column, the analytes must be introduced in narrow bands to the 2nd dimension column where they are further separated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of GC-Orbitrap MS with flow modulated GCxGC by assessing key analytical parameters.

Abstract # 209 - Poster - 10/12/2022 - 10:45 AM - Convention Center Walkway

Method translator for PLOT columns

Jan Pijpelink - Restek Corporation

Method translators are extremely helpful tools when modifying / developing a gas chromatographic (GC) method. Changes to GC method parameters like; inlet/outlet pressure, flow/carrier gas type or even capillary column dimensions will result in different retention times for our analytes and will affect resolution. Method translators calculate new analysis conditions by keeping the analytes elution temperatures the same, thus preserving elution order. Using this tool, the analysis method can be translated to a different column dimension, carrier gas type, linear velocity, for example, with very little time spent on the method development. Method translation works well for the columns with liquid stationary phases. The purpose of this work is to present feasibility and accuracy of the method translators for the porous layer open tubular (PLOT) columns.

Abstract # 226 - Poster - 10/12/2022 - 12:30 PM - Convention Center Walkway

Implementation of 2 - Dimensional Chromatography for Characterization of Non - Ionic Surfactants with Accurate Mass Time of Flight Spectrometry

Susan Dantonio - Agilent
nikolas Lau - Agilent

In this experiment, we will show characterization of ethoxylation in non - ionic surfactants. In the first dimension the separation is by degree of ethoxylation, while in the second dimension by the separation occurs by the length of the hydrophobic tail. This makes identification and quantitation possible in a single run. Using Agilent 2D LC MassHunter 11 software coupled with the G6230A Accurate Mass Time of flight instrument. We have both quantitative and qualitative data. We can show ppb levels of quantitative detection with Personal Compound Database Library (PCDL) matching in a Walkup environment that a plant QC technician can use.

Abstract # 228 - Poster - 10/12/2022 - 9:20 AM - Convention Center Walkway

Analytical Environmental Characterization of Lake Water

Bob D'Antonio - Texas A & M, Corpus Christi, TX
Ethan Zickert - Thunder Penguin Lakes Houses

Lake Thunderbird is a lake for recreational use that is roughly 6 miles northeast of Smithville, TX. The dimensions of Lake Thunderbird are 1600 feet long, 700 feet wide at widest point.  The elevation of Lake Thunderbird is 420 feet.  The coordinates on the GPS are 30.0595097 degree and -97.1125556 degree and the average depth of the lake is 12 feet.  

Our experiments were designed to characterize the water in Lake Thunderbird.  Testing was divided into three types of contaminants: heavy metals, microbiological agents, and pesticides.  Abiding by the EPA guidelines, the sampling protocol for Lake Thunderbird consisted of marking 10 spots at surface and at depth (18 inches), resulting in a total of 60 samples.  After the samples were collected, the samples were analyzed for pesticides by LCMS, TOF (Time of Flight) and QQQ (Triple Quad).  Samples were sent to an independent lab for analysis of heavy metals and microbial analysis.

Abstract # 240 - Poster - 10/12/2022 - 9:40 AM - Convention Center Walkway

Technological Advances in Density Measurements for Highly Viscous Bituminous Materials by Gas Pycnometry

Tatyana Khamatnurova - Anton Paar QuantaTec
Gina Paroline - Anton Paar USA

With rapid technological developments and demands for higher productivity, laboratory workflow efficiency has become the standard criteria for many organizations. Glass pycnometry for density measurements is becoming outdated due to time-consuming preparation, cumbersome equipment, and error-prone results. Bitumen producers that use density analysis for quality control and formulation consistency are transitioning to gas pycnometry to save time and achieve high-accuracy test results. Groundbreaking innovation in density analysis featuring bi-directionality, built-in temperature control, touch screen interface, wide-mouth sample cells and disposable liners drastically increases sample throughput making gas pycnometers ideal for solid, semi-solid materials including asphalts and greases.

Abstract # 241 - Poster - 10/12/2022 - 10:05 AM - Convention Center Walkway

RADIAN Atmospheric Solids Probe Evaluation

Janece Potter - Dow
Junho Jeon - Dow
Anthony Gies - Dow
James Alexander - Dow
Bryan Katzenmeyer - Waters
Zach Hardie - Waters
Spencer Havis - Waters
Greg Patten - Waters
Damian Morrison - Waters
Michael Jones - Waters
Cristian Cojocariu - Waters

In 2021 Dow began a collaboration with Waters Technologies Corporation to evaluate a new robust mass spectrometry screening tool for identification of components up to 1200 Da. The RADIAN Atmospheric Solids Probe (ASAP) provides an easy-to-use interface for rapidly collecting atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) data on solid and liquid samples.  The glass sampling probe was used to characterize a variety of samples including surfactants, sealants, gels, polymers, and additives. The system requires minimal utilities for operation and very little modification is necessary to install the equipment.  The compact design makes it ideal for use in labs with limited space.  The presentation will demonstrate how this new tool was utilized to characterize a wide variety of solid and liquid samples.

Abstract # 245 - Poster - 10/12/2022 - 10:25 AM - Convention Center Walkway

Recommended Best Practices in Gas Sorption Analyses

Omkar Nafday - Anton Paar
William Davis - Anton Paar

With increased demands in today's ever-changing industrial landscape where crucial decisions are based on experimental data, extra care is needed to achieve reproducible, relevant results. Gas sorption includes physisorption and chemisorption techniques where BET surface area, pore size distribution, pore volume and hysteresis loop analyses provides valuable insight on material properties. Gas sorption experiments on complex materials (powders, zeolites, MOFs, carbons) require careful sample preperation, adsorbent gas and sample cell selection and data analysis. Best practices for gas sorption analyses will be presented which will help prevent operator errors, provide reproducible data, and permit efficient evaluation of sample data.

Abstract # 273 - Poster - 10/12/2022 - 1:50 PM - Convention Center Walkway

Determination of Organic Chloride in Crude Oil by Headspace Gas Chromatography (GC) using Halide Specific Detector (XSD).

Chris Goss - Innotech Alberta
Lee Marotta - Perkin Elmer
Leeman Bennington - Perkin Elmer
Cynthia Elmore - Xylem

Organic chloride contamination in crude oil can cause hydrochloric acid to be formed during the hydrotreating process.  Hydrochloric acid can corrode equipment, piping and vessels in both upstream and downstream units. 

Quantitation of organic chlorides is currently performed using ASTM D4929.  This involves distillation of a naphtha cut, followed by a multistep washing of the crude oil to remove any hydrogen sulfide and inorganic salts followed by analysis and detection.

False positive (presence of organic chlorides) have been reported using ASTM D4929.  This may be due to the formation of olefins in the distillation process that were converted by the presence of inorganic salts to organic chlorides.   

The proposed method requires no distillation or sample washing and would enhance productivity by reducing sample handling.  Also reducing the chance of false positives.