2018 Posters

The following posters will be presented in the Exhibit Hall at the 2018 Gulf Coast Conference.

> View the 2017 posters.

Abstract # 102 - Poster

EDXRF Technology’s Applications to Measure the Sulfur Content in Ultra-Low Sulfur Fuels and to Measure Organometallic Additives in Lubrication Oils and Motor Gasoline.

Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Arthur Rozario - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Scott Fess - Applied Rigaku Technologies, Inc.

The Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (EDXRF) is a fast, simple, and non-destructive analysis technique for the measurement of liquids, powders, and solids. It is widely applied throughout the petroleum industry: upstream at the well site, mid-stream at pipelines, storage facilities and blending operations, and down-stream at the refinery.  Recently, with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) mandating new regulations on the composition of fuel, the maximum allowable sulfur content has been scaled down to 10 parts per million (ppm). Therefore, the EDXRF is an ideal analytical tool for refiners - with good lab practices- to accurately determine the sulfur content in fuel samples, conforming to not only ASTM D7220, but also meeting the testing requirements for the EPA Tier 3 program for ultra-low sulfur fuels such as gasoline and diesel. Furthermore, the EDXRF can be used to determine concentration of some elements such as manganese, lead, zinc, phosphorous, and calcium. The determination of manganese and lead content gives an indication of the anti-knock agent added to motor gasoline and Avgas to improve octane rating.  Whilst the determination of zinc, phosphorous, calcium, and Sulfur give an indication of the antioxidant, and antiwear agents in lubricating oils. The versatile application of the EDXRF allows end-users to effectively ascertain correct results for this desired use, and conform to international testing standards.

Abstract # 103 - Poster

Innovative Instrumentation Design for Measuring Multiple Fuel Properties in Diesel Fuel

Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Arthur Rozario - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Wayne Smith - Real-Time Analyzers

The efficiency, economy, and reliability of diesel engines has made it popular for use in transportation, manufacturing, power generation, construction, and farming.  In 2004, 60 percent (%) of trucks in the United States was recorded to consume diesel fuel. In fact, the sales of diesel fuel are an indicator of economic strength, as diesel engines are commonly used to move goods from manufacturer to consumer. It is advantageous to the end-user or consumer to have a reliable and effective way to quickly determine properties of a fuel. However, determining the properties of fuel can be a time-consuming process. Therefore, the Portable Fuel Property Analyzer (PFPA) is an innovative technique developed for fuel quality assessment for in-field analysis of diesel fuel that can be compared to the governing ASTM requirements.   The PFPA combines Near Infrared Spectroscopy with Advanced Chemometric Analysis to determine key fuel properties that must meet specification standards.  The PFPA correlates a database of NIR spectra to fuel properties that were determine with traditional ASTM methods using partial least squares (PLS). The PLS models were then compared to a validation set of fuel samples.  The predicted values of PFPA exhibit comparable accuracy to ASTM methods and the repeatability values often-exceeding ASTM repeatability values. In contrast to standard ASTM test methods, which require a specific instrument for each property and a large volume of fuel sample, the PFPA can determine multiple fuel properties of diesel fuel in 10 seconds using only 2ml of sample. This allows end-users to test diesel fuel rapidly, and to quickly determine if it meets fuel specification requirements.

Abstract # 106 - Poster

Recent Advances in a Unique Laboratory Technique SRV® to Study and Help Solve a Wide Range of Tribological Real-life Problems

Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company

The SRVÒ test system- where SRV stands for the German acronym for oscillation, friction and wear – provides diverse model test environment for evaluating the friction and wear properties of lubricants, greases and materials.

Due to its versatile application this test system is appealing to be adopted by the industry to test their components in setups with high practical relevance and in conjunction with lubricants, materials and layers. In this study, a reciprocal model test has been applied that reproduces the real load situation of the contact of piston ring and cylinder linear at Fired Top Dead Center (FTDC) of internal combustion engines. Friction, wear, and load carrying capacity (LCC) were analyzed as a function of temperature, oil supply rate, and normal force for grey cast iron and spray coated cylinder liners, different piston ring coatings and engine oils. The test results show a significant dependency of the LCC on changing temperature and oil supply rate corresponding to different cylindrical pressures. Furthermore, the SRVÒtechnology is in compliance with 19 ISO, DIN, and ASTM testing standards developed by the SRVÒstandardization work group. As the established industry standard for friction and wear testing, the SRVÒprovides high precision results that help solve a wide range of tribological real-life problems.

Abstract # 107 - Poster

Evaluation of Degradation Degree of Lubricating Oil Using Thermal Desorption and Pyrolysis Combined with DART-MS and Kendrick Mass Defect Analysis

CHIKAKO TAKEI - BioChromato, Inc.
KENICHI YOSHIZAWA - BioChromato, Inc.

Lubricating oil is composed of base oil and additives. In order to analyze the base oils and additives of lubricating oils, complicated pretreatment which takes a lot of time and effort were required, generally. However for R&D, QC and market research, it is important to obtain the information on base oils and additives. Recently, thermal desorption and pyrolysis/direct analysis in real time (TDP/DART)-MS and Kendrick Mass Defect (KMD) analysis is using for polymer analysis, respectively. The purpose of this work to Analysis directly and evaluate the degradation degree of lubricating oils. In the thermal desorption region, a phenol type antioxidant, an amine type antioxidant, a salicylic acid type detergent dispersant were detected and determined from all samples. No significant difference in the amount ratio of additive components at 0 km and 1000 km running, but at 5000 km, salicylic acid type detergent and phenolic antioxidant was remarkably decreased. Therefore, TDP/DART-MS enables evaluation of degradation degree of lubricating oils using the additive intensity as a marker. In the pyrolysis region, using KMD analysis, the glycol compounds were detected by automobile running, clearly. And it increased with increasing in mileage. It was assumed that the glycol compounds were one of degradation compounds of lubricating oils. Therefore, KMD analysis was valuable way to search the differences between complex mass spectra. In summary, a combination of TDP/DART-MS and KMD analysis enables analysis both additives and base oil without any pretreatment. Therefore, the combination can contribute to elucidate of the degradation mechanism, failure analysis, R&D, and quality control in the field of automobiles.

Abstract # 119 - Poster

Application of ASTM Test Methods to Analyze the Oxidation Properties of Automotive Gasoline in Various Test Conditions

Dr Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company
Tahseen Tabassum - Koehler Instrument Company

Determination of oxidation properties of petroleum products is important to determine their reactivity in the presence of air, moisture and organic compounds. Petroleum products are unstable as they form gum upon aging in the presence of air which is directly related to oxidation of gasoline. As the oxidation occurs in the system, the molecules of oxygen decrease resulting in the pressure drop in the system. Additionally, the presence of sulfur and other organic molecules can accelerate the oxidation in gasoline. The current method ASTM D525 Standard test method for oxidation stability of gasoline (Induction period method) covers the determination of the stability of gasoline under accelerated oxidation conditions and ASTM D130 Standard Test Method for Corrosiveness to Copper from Petroleum Products by Copper Strip Test was applied to determine the oxidation condition of gasoline in the presence of sulfur contamination. In this study ASTM D130 and D525 was performed to determine the oxidation properties of gasoline sample in the presence of air, moisture and additives. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging techniques were used to compare the rust formed in the Cu-strips during the oxidation process.

Abstract # 120 - Poster

Ongoing Developments of ILSAC GF-6 Engine Oils Standards

Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Christin Abraham - Stony Brook University

Approximately 30 percent of the total United States GHG emissions are generated by the transportation sector. Recent updates to the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFÉ) legislation require passenger cars and light trucks to attain an average fuel economy of 54.5 MPG by 2025. Upcoming ILSAC GF-6 certified engine oils will need to meet CAFÉ requirements. In this poster, the current state of ILSAC GF-6 will be discussed, including the need for a new standard, reasons for the repeated delays, improvements made over the preceding GF-5, and how close we are to first authorized use.

Abstract # 122 - Poster

Assessment of Biodiesel Quality Test Methods Used in Middle Distillate Fuels

Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc
Aristidis Mihalos - Stony Brook University

In recent years, biodiesel has proven to be a good alternative fuel option on the basis of its carbon neutral footprint, sustainability, and economic viability. In the early 2000s, biodiesel regulation was insufficient and not properly integrated in the industry. Biodiesel from this time period often lead to various issues including engine clogging problems. Thus, producing high quality biodiesel is paramount to the success of a petroleum-based fuel alternative. Seeing the need in the marketplace, the National Biodiesel Board collaborated with the Vehicle Technologies Office to improve the specifications for B100 biodiesel blend stocks that are to be mixed with middle distillate fuels in ASTM D6751: Standard Specification for Biodiesel Fuel (B100) Blend Stock for Distillate Fuels. This paper serves to introduce the different biodiesel testing methods in D6751 and to elucidate the significance and limitations of each test. Additionally, the paper discusses other biodiesel test methods used in Europe and elsewhere that may be beneficial for ASTM D6751 to consider in the future.

Abstract # 126 - Poster

Analysis of Industrial Polymer Application Defects by GC×GC

Christian Wold - SABIC
Eric Brander - SABIC
Jan Willem Heuseveldt - SABIC
Jos Dekkers - SABIC

This work outlines the use of GC×GC in a practical industrial setting for polymer application development. During the development cycle of new products, some questions may arise during prototyping and upscaling that require detailed chemical characterization.   The GC×GC technique is very powerful, particularly in combination with a variety of sample introduction techniques depending on the nature of the material to be examined. Equally important, the technique offers an exceptional way to visualize differences in samples, that may be reported and explained quite easily to non-chemists.   This work demonstrates the applicability of GC×GC to understand the performance of polymers in applications by comparing and processing complex 2D chromatograms. For example in a household lighting application, visual inspection of the GC×GC 2D plots and analysis of MS data were used to establish the chemical differences between four subassembly parts. Based on the GC×GC data it was possible to propose an improvement in the process of product development. In another application, polymer sheets exhibiting differences in color and light transmittance were studied by GC×GC. The obtained 2D contour plots were compared to highlight which components were likely to be responsible for the color change and transmittance alteration.   Finally, the benefits and challenges of GC×GC for polymer analysis were evaluated and will be addressed.

Abstract # 128 - Poster

The effect of intermolecular forces and entropy on viscosity, vapor pressure and evaporation in hydrocarbon oils

Tom Karis - TEK Data Systems
Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company Inc.
Andrew Zheng - Koehler Instrument Company Inc.

With technological advancements, the demand for better lubrication is always increasing. Previous studies show that viscosity and vapor pressure play a major role in determining the usability of base oils. A combination of low vapor pressure and low viscosity is fundamental in creating new more efficient lubricating base oils. However, developing an oil that consists of these two properties is a challenge; as molecular weight decreases, vapor pressure increases and viscosity decreases which causes the oil to evaporate, leading to oil loss and environmental contamination. Polarity and isomerization are two oil properties that affect the oil evaporation and flow. These properties can be modified to adjust the flow activation entropy and intermolecular dispersion force to lower the viscosity while maintaining a low vapor pressure. This poster will compare results from various studies to explore the relationship between these properties for a series of hydrocarbon oils with a range of molecular weight and polarity as well as their isomers.

Abstract # 131 - Poster

Orthogonal Selectivity for separation of light and heavy Petroleum Hydrocarbons by GCxGC

Ramkumar Dhandapani - Phenomenex

Complex sample mixtures including Petroleum hydrocarbons fractions requires detailed separation of individual class of organic compounds. A traditional GC approach will lead to multiple coelutions. In the present work, a GCxGC approach was considered to explore multi dimensional separation of complex light and heavier hydrocarbons. Due to high peak capacity in GCxGC, orthogonal selectivity of Zebron GC columns, complementary selectivity in 2 dimensions, a range of compounds including linear alkanes (n and iso-parafins),linear alkenes (olefins), cyclic alkanes, aromatics (one-ring teralin derivatives), Aromatics (one-ring, benzene derivatives), Aromatics (2-rings naphtalene derivatives), Aromatics (2-rings, dibenzene derivatives), Aromatic (3-rings), Aromatic (4-rings), Aromatic (5-rings)  were completely resolved. The column combination ZB-1HT and ZB-35 HT not only provided high temperature to elute all the fractions but also provided adequate selectivity to separate individual aliphatic and aromatics from each other.

Abstract # 132 - Poster

Improved High Temperature Simulated Distillation (ASTM D6352 and D7169) Using Zebron™ ZB-1XT SimDist Metal GC Columns

Ramkumar Dhandapani - Phenomenex

An improved method for high temperature simulated distillation based upon ASTM D7169 is presented using the Zebron ZB-1XT SimDist column. This column utilizes a Glass Infusion™ Technology that results in more improved efficiency, resolution, and unmatched column-to-column reproducibility. This technology also allows simulated
distillation methods, such as ASTM D6352 and D7169, to be extended from C100 to C120 while still meeting all the system suitability requirements.Experiments show that the proven PDMS stability for boiling point based separation, high temperature resistance and faster equilibration not only provides good separation of hydrocarbon fractions but also provides reproducible results.

Abstract # 134 - Poster

Cis- Trans FAME in Fuels by GC & GCxGC using ZB-FAME GC Column

Ramkumar Dhandapani - Phenomenex

Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAMEs) are a big threat in aviation fuels as well as in biofuels. Accurate quantitation and separation of cis trans, low and higher boiling FAMes is essential from quality control prespective as well as from a safety prespective. In the present work a ZB-FAME GC column is utilized to accurately characterize FAME in Fuels by GC MS. Traditional selectivity like a 100% Polyethyleneglycol phase may have few coelutions of FAME, while coupling ZB-Fame with Mass spec based detection priovides excellent separation of cis & trans FAME along with lower level detection. Traditional high cyano selectivity takes an hour to separate Cis/ trans FAMEs, while ZB-FAME can separate them within 11 min. This approach was also extended to 2D GC using ZB-Fame in the first dimension & a 5% phenyl selectivity in the second dimension to obtain orthogonal separation. Thus analysis of fuels by GC MS & GCxGC using  ZB-FAME  assures safety of aviation fuels.

Abstract # 140 - Poster

Purity Measurement of Cyanogen Chloride using GC/MS and GC-ICP-MS

William Geiger - CONSCI, Ltd.

Cyanogen Chloride (aka CK) is compound that has been proposed for use in chemical warfare. It is a blood agent causing injury to the respiratory system and eyes. It is especially dangerous because it can penetrate many filters in gas masks. Because of this attribute, it is used as a test gas for evaluating gas mask filters. Government standards require 90% to 95% purity for test purposes. Conventional GC detectors are not capable of this quantitation accurately. Using GC/MS for identification and GC-ICP-MS for quantitation a comprehensive analysis van be accomplished