2017 Posters

The following posters will be presented in the Exhibit Hall at the 2017 Gulf Coast Conference.

> View the 2016 posters.

Abstract # 105 - Poster

Development of an NIR analyzer for measuring multiple fuel properties of commercial and military grade jet fuel in the field

Dr. Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company
Cindy Galdamez - Koehler Instrument Company
Stuart Farquharson - Real Time Analyzers

When it comes to Aviation fuel of both commercial and military grade, quality and safety are of the utmost importance. A new technique has been developed for quick, in-field analysis of Jet Fuel properties that can be compared to the governing ASTM requirements. ASTM D1655 is the standard specification for aviation turbine fuels, the new portable near-infrared (NIR) analyzer that will be discussed in this poster can give results with comparable reproducibility to some of the key tests required by this standard. Before the development of this new technique, Raman spectroscopy was used to analyze several fuel properties, however these analyzers are very expensive and not feasible for commercial use. The new Portable Fuel Quality Analyzer uses optics, detectors, and a light source that are much more cost effective allowing there to be more fuel checks during the shipment process at fuel ports and depots. Through experimental research it was determined that an NIR analyzer that measures in the 1000 to 1600 nm spectral range with 5 nm resolution and a 1 cm path length would give results meeting ASTM repeatability and reproducibility for testing certain fuel properties. Through the use of multivariate statistics and a fuel sample data base the values given by the Portable NIR Analyzer were correlated to the ASTM proven values. Twenty-two correlation models for diesel, gasoline, and jet fuels were developed with the help of ASTM certified laboratories to compare repeatability and reproducibility values. The analyzer determined properties had reproducibility values that compared favorably to the ASTM values and the repeatability values of the analyzer properties often exceeded ASTM repeatability values. Therefore, for jet fuel in particular, the user can quickly and easily determine Density, API Gravity, Distillation Fractions, Flash Point, Viscosity (at -20°C), Freezing Point, Pour Point and Fuel System Icing Inhibitor values.

Abstract # 106 - Poster

Development of an ASTM method to reliably predict which heavy crudes or petroleum residua can be mixed without causing phase separation

Dr. Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company
Cindy Galdamez - Koehler Instrument Company

The newly updated Automated Flocculation Titrimeter (AFT) automates the collection of Heithaus values and predicts flocculation for various crudes. It also allows users to easily and reliably predict which heavy oils and petroleum residua (including asphalts) can be mixed without causing phase separation. 

Typically, refiners all around the world have stopped processing crudes too soon because they couldn’t predict precisely when coking would occur. They’ve stopped well short of coke formation to avoid fouling in heavy oil processing equipment, tanks, and transfer lines but have reduced the distillate yield.  That is now history due to the development of the advanced AFT. This advanced laboratory tool is also capable of reverse titration and can be used for flocculation kinetic studies.

This expanded AFT methodology, now allows any refinery using this tool to recover additional distillate without fear of fouling. One can predict the refinery conditions for coking and stop processing before fouling occurs but not sooner than necessary by using the Coking Indexes pioneered by Western Research Institute. The AFT lets the user quickly and easily collect the data needed for analysis.

The theory behind this innovative technique is discussed in this poster as well. Petroleum residua consists of ordered structures of associated polar asphaltene complexes that are dispersed in a lower polarity solvent phase by intermediate polarity material commonly referred to as resins. When the residuum is heated to temperatures above 340 degrees Celsius, this suspended structure is systematically and irreversibly destroyed during pyrolysis. A common problem in the refining industry is to ascertain how close a pyrolysis system is to forming coke on the coke induction period timeline. A certain amount of pyrolysis typically occurs and can be tolerated in a distillation unit, since there is an induction period prior to the appearance of coke.

The automated flocculation titrimeter has been developed to perform ASTM D6703, the official test method for automated Heithaus titrimetry. This helps to measure the state of the dispersed particle system and calculates predictive parameters for heavy oils.

The advanced AFT can now be used to provide valuable information about the internal stability of a heavy oil, the proximity of a pyrolyzed oil to coke formation, and to design blending protocols for oils mixtures related to prevent asphaltene precipitation, as well as study flocculation kinetics. It is an extremely versatile tool for the petroleum industry in both upstream and downstream operations.

Abstract # 109 - Poster

Development of an Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDXRF) Technology and Experimental Technique to Measure Low PPM of Sulfur and Chlorine to Comply with Tier 3 Gasoline Standards

Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company
Vincent Colantuoni - Koehler Instrument Company
Eric Cervino - Koehler Instrument Company

Starting 2017- barring any last minute revisions- the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will be administering new Tier 3 Gasoline Standards. In the latest, compelling attempt to reduce air pollution, the new standards will affect high sulfur content in gasoline to promote cleaner emissions from passenger vehicles and trucks. To comply with the new requirements set in place, fuel composition must now be limited to a maximum of 10 ppm sulfur content.  

ASTM D7220 “Standard Test Method for Sulfur in Automotive, Heating, and Jet Fuels by Monochromatic Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry” can be used to verify various fuels’ compatibility with the newly implemented EPA standards. Types of fuels covered under ASTM D7220 include oxygen-enriched gasoline (RFG), diesel, diesel/biodiesel blends (volume ≤ 20% biodiesel), kerosene, jet fuel, jet fuel/biodiesel blends (volume ≤ 5% biodiesel) and No. 2 home heating oil. This poster will focus mainly on experiments conducted with gasoline, however. The test method’s assignment is based off evidence proving that current EDXRF (Energy-Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence) Technology using matrix-matched empirical calibrations can be used for the EPA performance-based testing.

Koehler’s EDXRF apparatus adheres to the ASTM D7220 model and has been manifested to ensure a refiner meets with the newly enforced Tier 3 Gasoline Standards and the associated robust regulations. After numerous rounds of laboratory testing, the ASTM D7220 test method has a proven record of accurately measuring the presence of sulfur in various fuel samples. This powerful analytical tool utilizes polarized X-ray technology to accurately determine the sulfur content of the sample in question. When the beam passes through the sample, it reveals the sulfur content after comparing it to a sulfur-free background spectrum. By using the Koehler EDXRF instrument, refiners can be confident in their continued compliance with the EPA by providing the agency with accurate, reportable data. Preliminary data along with results and discussion will be included in our findings.

Abstract # 110 - Poster

Construction and Evolvement of a State of the Art Laboratory Technique for Corrosion Measurement: Comparative Study of a Variety of Samples Using NACE/ASTM D665 in Relation to a New Benchtop Accelerated Corrosion Test Method

Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company
Imran Husseni - HollyFrontier Refining
Vincent Colantuoni - Koehler Instrument Company
Eric Cervino - Koehler Instrument Company

The muddled composition of some petroleum products contain elements that cause corrosion on interior surfaces, leading to the degeneration of pipelines and formation of detrimental deposits inside engines. The method used for analyzing the corrosive properties of gasoline and distillate fuels in preparation for transport through a pipeline was originally developed by the National Association of Corrosion Engineers. The NACE TM0172 test method requires four hours to produce results and demands a 300mL sample of the product in question. While this test method's success has served the industry well for many years, key stakeholders began expressing a profound interest for an improvement exhibiting a faster turnaround and smaller sample size requirement to promote better repeatability and reliability. Working closely with key refineries around the country and executing numerous extensive laboratory trial and error experiments has all lead to a faster, easier, and more reliable test method. The new ASTM test method, ASTM D7548 for Determination of Accelerated Iron Corrosion in Petroleum Products is the evolution in state of the art laboratory corrosion measurement procedures. Its revolutionary characteristics touches upon some engineering concerns expressed by industry leaders regarding the accelerated corrosion test methods of the past. The new method only requires a 50mL sample and less than a fourth of time to complete testing in comparison to the NACE TM0172 and ASTM D665 accelerated corrosion test methods. This less demanding laboratory setup will save the industry significant time when testing to determine the corrosive qualities of various petroleum products. When applied to pipeline transfer station operations- where a quick QC turnaround time is absolutely critical- the ASTM D7548 test method becomes an adequate substitute for assurance. This poster will discuss the comparative data originating from preliminary instrument testing.

Abstract # 116 - Poster

Lubricating Oils Analysis Using Thermal Desorption and Pyrolysis / Direct Analysis in Real Time-Mass Spectrometry (TDP/DART-MS)

Chikako Takei - BioChromato, Inc.
Kenichi Yoshizawa - BioChromato, Inc.

Lubricating oils are composed of base oil and additives. To satisfy the high specific demands accompanying the development of machinery and automobiles, synthetic base oils and various additives are used. Generally, since complicated pre-treatment is necessary for analysis, extending the time and increasing the effort required to obtain results. If analysis without pre-treatment is possible, it will be useful for research and development. We conducted this study using TDP/DART-MS without any pre-treatment. Additives and base oil in the lubricating oils were analyzed respectively. Moreover, this analysis method could be applied to evaluate the degradation degree. 

Abstract # 129 - Poster

A Detailed Study and Comparison of a Variety of Bench Scale ASTM Oxidation Tests for Lubricating Oils

Nicole Passariello - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Dr. Raj Shah - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.
Vincent Colantuoni - Koehler Instrument Company, Inc.

Various ASTM test methods are currently used to test the oxidation properties of lubricating oils. They vary based on the type of lube oil they are attempting to test and the aim is usually to emulate under laboratory conditions, the real world conditions that the oils are subjected to. The primary factors that are usually available in the lab to simulate such a real life condition are the duration of the test, the temperature the sample is subjected to, catalyst that can be used to speed up the oxidation process, the atmosphere and condition under which the sample is tested etc. By changing these conditions for different kinds of oils, various ASTM oxidation tests have been created to study the oxidation and thermal performance of lubricants in the laboratory. Some of the lubricating oils that ASTM accounts for in their oxidation testing include hydraulic, R&O, turbine fuel oils, gear oils, greases, engine oils etc..  The test methods include ASTM D 942 - Oxidation Characteristics of Inhibited Mineral Oils, ASTM D 2893 - Oxidation Characteristics of Extreme Pressure Lubricating Oils, and ASTM D 5763 - Oxidation and Thermal Stability Characteristics of Gear Oils Using Universal Glassware just to name a few. The goal of this study is to look at these various test procedures already developed, and to attempt to create a more universal procedure / apparatus that can be modified by the user in their laboratory to run their own research protocols, while developing newer and longer lasting lube oils.

Abstract # 138 - Poster

Fast Simulated Distillation Analysis by Modified ASTMĀ® D2887, D7169, D6352, and D7500

Tracy Dini - Perkin Elmer Inc.
Mamdouh Farag - Perkin Elmer Inc.

Simulated Distillation (SimDis) is a GC technique used to simulate the results of a distillation tower, separating crudes into component fractions by boiling points. The PKI Dragon software takes the chromatogram of the crude oil sample and correlates it with a calibration performed on known parrafins comparing RT to BP and calculating the SimDis result. To obtain this result in a short time the GC is pushed to its maximum operating temperature. The Perkin Elmer Clarus 690GC equipped with a POC Injector and Wide Range FID is built to withstand this high performance level while providing optimal sensitivity. Knowing the product fractions of crude oil ahead of time allows adjustments to be made to the refining process, resulting in higher efficiency rates of distillation for the crude oil. 

Abstract # 142 - Poster

Development of Ion Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry Technique for Squeeze Management

Lei Cheng - Ecolab
Christopher Durnell - Ecolab
Emerils Casado-Rivera - Ecolab

Aminophosphonates are effective scale inhibitors used to prevent and control scale problems in oilfields. It is significant to measure the accurate and precise scale inhibitor residuals to manage the squeeze treatment. The prevalent analytical technique inductively coupled plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-EOS) is simple and used to quantify aminophosphonate by measuring the phosphorus content in the sample. However, it is not able to differentiate phosphonate mixtures in the commingled sample. In this work, we developed ion chromatography and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (e.g. IC-MS and IC-MS/MS), which have high sensitivity and specificity to quantify several phosphonates in the system. Ion chromatography efficiently separates phosphonate ions from other salt ions, because phosphonates are multivalent anions which have the stronger interaction with the column than the monovalent chloride anions or other anions. At an early stage, the IC-MS method has been developed to differentiate two phosphonates in the squeeze treatment. As the increase of the complexity of the squeeze treatment, more advanced technique, IC-MS/MS has been developed to differentiate four phosphonates in the commingled sample. The innovative technique can detect the low level of phosphonate in the mixture at 1 ppm. The technique has been validated using synthetic brine and field brine. The IC-MS/MS method is a powerful technique in squeeze scale management. In future, further analysis of real field samples of the squeeze treatments of multiple wells will be performed.  

Abstract # 143 - Poster

GC-ICP-MS Analysis of Nickel and Iron Carbonyl in Carbon Monoxide and Syngas

William M. Geiger - CONSCI, Ltd.
Jesus Anguiano - CONSCI, Ltd.
Blake McElmurry - CONSCI, Ltd.

GC-ICP-MS Analysis of Nickel and Iron Carbonyl in Carbon Monoxide and Syngas Carbon monoxide is an important industrial gas with a wide variety of uses. It is present in many gas mixtures such as Syngas and even mixed with natural gas.  Presence of metal carbonyls, particularly nickel and iron can be problematic when gas is used as fuel, semi-conductor modifier, or as a therapeutic medical gas.  Heretofore analytical methods have been suspect due the difficulty in calibration and the labile/reactive nature of the analytes.  A novel approach has been developed for accurate analysis using GC-ICP-MS.