2018 Oral Presentations

The following abstracts have been received and accepted for presentation at the 2018 Gulf Coast Conference. Additional submissions will be added to this list as they are received and accepted.

> View the 2017 presentations.

Abstract # 100 - Paper

Fuel Quality is Changing and Contaminates are Increasing:How to protect your gas fired turbine engine

Kristen Cassels - SGS North America, Inc.

Today’s highly efficient turbines rely on high-quality alloys to permit increased firing temperatures to be achieved and to maintain acceptable product life. Therefore more attention has to be placed on the quality of the fluids, from all sources, entering the gas turbine, especially the fuel. Gas Turbines can - and do - use a wide range of gaseous and liquid fuels and the subject of fuel quality is a major topic to consider in more depth.   As new gas fields are developed in remote sections of the globe, we at SGS have witnessed an accelerated development and production of gas fuels and especially the production of green gas fuels such as sour gas and land fill gases.   All Gas Turbine OEMs, including Siemens, provide comprehensive specifications covering the fuel quality permitted for use in a gas turbine. These are used to ensure fuel quality is defined at the onset of a project and throughout the lifetime of the turbine and are prepared to ensure acceptable turbine operation is achieved with little or no impact on major turbine component life.   At SGS we want to provide insight and understanding of fuel composition so that measures can be taken to minimize the impact of any major constituents of the fuel, along with the potential impact on turbine components of any identified contaminants and ways to mitigate this impact. Compositions of gaseous fuels, for example, can vary quite widely depending on their source and can contain a number of hydrocarbon species along with inert gases as well as contaminants. Liquid fuels are also commonly used, often as a back-up fuel, and these can also contain potentially harmful contaminants.     

Abstract # 101 - Paper

Microwave digestion replaces 10 hour ash methods for metals analysis in petroleum products

Reynhardt Klopper - Anton Paar, USA Inc.

Laboratories preparing petroleum samples for metals analysis have been using ASTM test methods D5708-B, D5863-A or IP 501 to prepare samples. These methods are slow, inefficient and laborious. Recently approved ASTM standard practice D7876 can reduce the preparation time, acid consumption and eliminate operator’s exposure to corrosive vapors. A novel microwave digestion instrument will be presented, which enables efficient and reproducible digestion of a wide variety of petroleum samples. Up to 24 different samples can be processed simultaneously, even applying varying acid mixtures. Digestions are performed under reflux or stirring to overcome challenges associated with highly viscous, buoyant, or reactive samples

Abstract # 104 - Paper

The Analysis of contaminants in Petroleum Products

Michael Pohl - HORIBA Instruments, Inc.

Both organic, inorganic and organo-metallic compounds show up as contaminants in petroleum products.  They can range from ppb levels all of the way to wt.% in samples.  In crude oil these materials are contaminants which came through the sample treatment while in lubricating oils.  These are materials which were intentionally added for performance reasons.  These materials can include most every element in the Periodic Table with many occurring in the same sample.  These challenges require the use of multiple analytical techniques to solve these problems.

One of the most versatile ways to meet this challenge is to use X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy.  The two possible approaches, WDXRF and EDXRF, have evolved to be two possible solutions to this challenge.  Both techniques can handle multiple elements and have been developed to have reasonably LOQ types of values.  These approaches will be compared and contrasted using some real world samples for comparison. The application to actual samples from an application perspective will be made.

Abstract # 108 - Training Course

Understanding how to develop quality methods in GPC/ SEC and Liquid chromatography.

Larry Meeker - Waters Corp

This training course is designed to discuss the practical aspects of method development for both GPC and LC. We will discuss; system set up, column selection, solvent choice and detector selection. Both the novice and seasoned chemist will find value in the topics covered such as Alpha, K, plate count, effects of pH etc. We will outline a process for developing a method from scratch that is easy and strait forward.

Abstract # 110 - Workshop

The Pyrolysis Workshop

Terry Ramus - Diablo Analytical
Itsuko Iwai - Frontier Laboratories
Rojin Belganeh - Frontier Laboratories

Pyrolysis performed correctly is a valuable and easy to use sample introduction technique for GC and GC/MS.  It allows the user to characterize any solid or viscous organic materials that otherwise could not be analyzed by GC.  Learn when to use Evolved Gas Analysis, Thermal Desorption, Heart-Cutting, or Pyrolysis; all with the same system. Potential, new and existing users of Frontier Labs’ Multi-functional Pyrolyzer products are encouraged to attend. No prior experience needed.  

-Materials characterization “method map”: a formula for success.
-Applications: deformulation, polymers, additives, coatings, biomass, oil shale, quantitative methods.
-Data Review Tools: hands-on use of F-Search Software and MS Libraries.
-Maintenance and Discussion Sessions.

Abstract # 111 - Paper

The Analysis of Regulated Phthalates in a Complex Matrix using Thermal Desorption-GC/MS

Rojin Belganeh - Frontier Lab
Terry Ramus - Diablo Analytical
Itsuko Iwai - Frontier Laboratories
Robert Freeman - Frontier Laboratories

Phthalates have been used as additives in plastic for many years to make them more flexible.  Several phthalates are regulated on a global scale, and several analytical techniques can be used for phthalates analysis.  Thermal Desorption (TD)-GC/MS is one of the easiest and most accurate methods for phthalate analysis. Recently manufacturers have switched formulations to include unregulated phthalates. Generally, phthalates are identified using both retention time and MS spectra. However, some unregulated phthalates have similar retention times and MS spectra, compared to regulated phthalates. This is the basis of existing ASTM and IEC methods for regulated phthalates by this technique.

Abstract # 112 - Paper

Analysis, Characterization, and Deformulation of Apparently Similar Rubber Parts Using Multiple Modes of Pyrolysis-GC/MS

Terry Ramus - Diablo Analytical

The formulation details of the polymer parts are often not known to the manufacturer or other steps in the supply chain.  The same part number in the supply chain can result in a polymer part that is not made with the same formulation, yet the apparent polymer properties seem to be equivalent. Pyrolysis-GC/MS is used in multiple modes to characterize a set of rubber parts that seem approximately similar.  The results reveal significant differences in chemical composition.  Results can be used to monitor parts quality at the manufacturing point in the supply chain to reduce future variability in part failure.

Abstract # 113 - Paper

Analysis of Acrylic Adhesives Using Pyrolysis-GC/MS

Itsuko Iwai - Frontier Lab
Terry Ramus - Diablo Analytical
Rojin Belganeh - Frontier Laboratories
Robert Freeman - Frontier Laboratories

Dicing tape is a backing tape used during silicon wafer dicing. The adhesive on the tape holds silicon dies, the pieces of semiconductor wafer, with high adhesion. The adhesive should include two features; the die must be held tightly during the cutting process, and the dicing tape must be easily removed after cutting. Die manufacturers seek techniques for material characterization of the dicing tapes as the compositions of adhesives are often not disclosed. This work demonstrates how to qualify and quantify the composition of dicing tapes using the multi-mode Pyrolysis GCMS while the adhesive was directly analyzed without sample preparation.

Abstract # 114 - Paper

Finding the Perfect LIMS in the Petrochemical and Refining Sectors

Steve Wesson - Accelerated Technology Laboratories

This presentation is targeted at petrochemical and refining organizations who are looking to implement a Laboratory Information Management Systems (LIMS) and looking for guidance on making the right choice. We will focus on the critical points to remember during the selection process and walk through a list of proven LIMS selection and implementation best practices that will help ensure your LIMS project is a success. We will also discuss key LIMS features that are critical for laboratories supporting petrochemical and refining companies.

Abstract # 115 - Seminar

Laboratory Automation Today in the Oil & Gas Industry

Christine Paszko - Accelerated Technology Laboratories

This seminar will be a primer on how laboratories in the oil and gas industry are implementing modern laboratory automation solutions to increase lab productivity and data quality while reducing costs and achieving a strong return on investment.   At the center of a robust lab automation solution is a Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS), a critical software solution that is designed to streamline the sample management process from login through disposal. We’ll also discuss the importance of instrument integration and bar coding as essential pieces of a complete solution. And we will also highlight several petrochemical/refining companies and their use of LIMS to manage lab operations.

Abstract # 116 - Paper

Novel Quantitation Method Development for Asphaltene Inhibitor Analysis Using Pyrolysis GC-MS and MS/MS

Lei (Lyla) Cheng - Ecolab
Tim Bonner - Ecolab
Christopher Durnell - Ecolab
Casado-Rivera Emerilis - Ecolab

Asphaltene inhibitors (AI) are polymer additives to prevent the aggregation of asphaltene molecules and therefore shift the asphaltene onset pressure. AI residual analysis is significant to understand the performance of AI. AI product A is dosed at very low concentrations into the oil (up to a few hundred parts per million by volume). The challenge is to improve sensitivity at low detection limit while a trace amount of sample is used by pyrolysis GC-MS. To solve this challenge, an improved pyrolysis GC-MS (selected ion monitoring, SIM) technique is being developed for the quantitation and the potential MRM (multiple reaction monitoring) method with higher sensitivity was investigated. The curve is linear ranging from 100 ppm to 1000 ppm. The SIM method has higher sensitivity than the Full scan and EIC method in the published patent method. MRM is still under development by investigating the characteristic fragment ions of the series of nonylphenol ions. This novel method has high repeatability and high sensitivity with small amount of sample use about 0.1~0.2 mg. The technique is going to be applied to monitor the performance of the AI product in filed.

Abstract # 117 - Paper

50 Minute Detailed Hydrocarbon Analysis of Gasoline Using Gas Chromatography – Vacuum Ultraviolet Absorption Spectroscopy

James Diekmann - VUV Analytics
Jack Cochran - VUV Analytics

Detailed Hydrocarbon Analysis (DHA) by ASTM Method D6730 uses high-resolution GC-FID to separate and quantify individual spark-engine fuel compounds, which can then be reported as paraffins, isoparaffins, olefins, naphthenes, and aromatics (PIONA).  GC run time is long and post-processing data review is necessary to ensure accurate peak integration for closely eluting compounds.   GC with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) absorption spectroscopy offers a new DHA approach.  VUV spectra uniqueness enables deconvolution while class similarity of spectra permits PIONA reporting.  DHA GC run time can be shortened to 50 min.  Fully automated data processing produces a compound and class report in 90 sec.

Abstract # 118 - Paper

Olefin Class Characterization In Gasoline-Range Samples Using Gas Chromatography - Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy

Alex Hodgson - VUV Analytics
Jack Cochran - VUV Analytics

Olefins cause problems for refineries. For example, conjugated dienes in fluid catalytic cracking gasolines are prone to polymerization, which can plug downstream processes.   Gas chromatography with flame ionization detection or mass spectrometry struggles with olefin differentiation.  Methods specific for conjugated diene characterization vary in complexity, analysis time, and accuracy. Diene analysis using maleic anhydride addition takes more than 3 hours, and suffers from incomplete reactions and interferences.   Vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy (VUV) differentiates gasoline hydrocarbons based on their distinctive spectra.  Olefins – and particularly conjugated dienes – absorb strongly in the higher wavelength region, allowing for deconvolution and quantitation in complex fuel matrices.

Abstract # 121 - Paper

Corrosion control and chemically inert nanocoatings for use in the refining, petrochemical and analytical equipment industries.

Gary Barone - SilcoTek Corporation

Faced with growing demand to increase performance and lower costs, the refining, petrochemical, oil and gas industries are long overdue for new corrosion resistant coating technology that is more easily integrated into production. This paper will discuss silicon-based chemical vapor deposition (CVD) nanocoatings that, when applied to stainless steel and other alloys, are proven to cut maintenance costs by offering corrosion protection equivalent to exotic metals while also easing design, fabrication, and installation of coated parts.

By using a gas-phase CVD process, components with complex geometries or narrow passageways such as valves, fasteners, tubing and filters can be thoroughly treated both internally and externally.  The coating is molecularly bound to the base substrate, giving durability and flexibility without flaking, while the thin profile (approximately 1µm thickness) has no impact on design tolerances.  The silicon-based CVD coating’s performance is not directly related to thickness; rather, its advanced surface chemistry is extremely inert, greatly hindering corrosive interaction with the surface.

The coatings are tailored to provide specific high-performance properties that complement their corrosion resistance, including hydrophobicity, oxidation protection above 1000° C, and coking/fouling resistance.  The coatings’ versatility makes them ideal solutions throughout the refinery, not to mention exploration and upstream applications.  Silicon-based CVD coatings on stainless steel are cost-effective alternatives to duplex, super duplex and super alloys that offer a myriad of additional benefits for boosting output while decreasing maintenance-related costs.  Here, the silicon-based CVD coatings' material properties and corrosion performance will be examined and compared to alternative solutions.

Exposure results will be demonstrated for Salt Spray, ASTM G85; Immersion, ASTM G31, in Hydrochloric acid, bleach and sulfuric acid; Pitting and crevice corrosion, ASTM G48B; and impact on Galvanic corrosion between 6061 Aluminum and stainless steel.

Abstract # 123 - Paper

Transferring Routine Lab GC Analysis to Automatic On-Line Measurement

Ulrich Gokeler - Siemens Industry, Inc.

Most industrial plants have analytical laboratories for off-line analysis. Depending on the process and task the objective is to support product quality and process trouble shooting. However, there are analysis that are repetitively performed daily or several times a day. By transferring such routine lab analyses to an automatic and on-line measurement system, there can be significant cost savings associated with it. Furthermore, measurement point dependent, because higher measurement frequency and repeatable sample conditions possibly enables improved process and quality control. This presentation will discuss upfront considerations and the possible benefits of transferring laboratory GC measurements.  

Abstract # 124 - Paper

Analytical Improvements of HRVOC Flare and Cooling Tower Measurement

Ulrich Gokeler - Siemens Industry, Inc.

The TCEQ Chapter 115 regulation in the Houston Galveston area has been implemented for more than 10 years. Among other requirements there is the need for the analytical measurement of defined olefin hydrocarbons in flare waste gas and cooling tower water. Since implementation it has been observed that many of the analytical reliability issues encountered impacting maintainability, data availability and data compliance have few common root causes. This presentation discusses commonly encountered issues for flare waste gas and cooling tower water, ranging from filtering, flow control, validation to sample condensation and provides suggestions of beneficial remedies.

Abstract # 125 - Paper

Importance of Analytical Technology Throughout the SABIC Value Chain

Christian Wold - SABIC

SABIC offers a very broad portfolio of polyolefin and engineering thermoplastic polymers and has competencies across the value chain of feedstock cracking, polymerization, material development and advanced final part design. In this presentation, the importance of analytical technology will be addressed from a technology and innovation perspective using examples throughout the value chain;   Liquid feedstock streams for steam cracking are very complex in nature and detailed knowledge of the compositions provided by ICP-MS and 2DGC techniques are crucial for optimization of the cracking operations while preventing fouling from coke and metals .   After cracking the slate consists of a variety of useful monomers, monitored by GC and used for further polymerization into polyolefins or engineering thermoplastics.   For polymer development, information on distributions are paramount and analytical chemists unravel data on branching, co-monomer distributions and molecular weight all relatable to final application performance.   Finally as a customer focused organization SABIC works to provide solutions and innovative analytical sciences are required in the phase of trials and implementation to ensure success.

Abstract # 127 - Seminar

Sulfur in Natural Gas

Christina Heacox - INFICON

Natural Gas is a naturally occurring gas mixture that contains fixed gases and light hydrocarbons. Natural gas is colorless and odorless, although it often contains trace amounts of sulfurs as impurities. While natural gas producers often want to remove impurities such as H2S (Hydrogen Sulfide) and COS (Carbonyl Sulfide), they will often introduce odorants into the gas mixture that can serve as leak indicators and warning agents. In the US, the odorant TBM (Tert-Butyl Mercaptan) is often added into the gas stream and THT (Tetrahydrothiophene) is a commonly added odorant in Europe. Precise and fast measurement of natural gas composition is critical for producers, gatherers, and natural gas manufacturers; this often includes the need for analyzing sulfurs and odorants. Micro GC Fusion configured with two channels is capable of analyzing sulfurs and odorants found in natural gas streams in less than 1 minute.

Abstract # 129 - Seminar

GCxGCxMS of Diesel: A Three-Dimensional Separation Approach

Frank Wang - Exxonmobil Research and Engineering Co.

Diesel, a complex hydrocarbon mixture, was examined using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) and a field ionization mass spectrometer (FIMS), which preferentially yields molecular ions, providing an extra dimension for component separation. Molecular ions collected at low mass resolution can be assigned an NM-class (Nominal Mass-class) value that does not completely express hydrogen deficiency.  In contrast to formulae and Z-class assignments that are possible from ultrahigh mass resolution, NM-class assignments are not unambiguous; however, the separation provided by GCxGC can result in coelution of components that differ in NM-class.  Hence, compounds that are unresolved by GCxGC separation can be resolved by FIMS provided they differ in mass.  This technique allows for easy, automated data processing, evaluation of coelution on quantitative analysis (e.g., using FID) and the identification of additional chemical species and structures. The development of GCxGCxMS creates new opportunities to improve the ability to determine hydrocarbon composition and structure in complex petroleum and refined petroleum products. We will demonstrate the power of the three-dimensional technology using diesel as an example.

Abstract # 130 - Paper

Analysis of Gums and Distillation Residues of Gasoline for Increased Accuracy of Particulate Emissions Prediction

Justin Pletzke - General Motors
Emily Popp - General Motors
Alex Bonkowski - General Motors
Jessica McGahan - General Motors
Mark Winston-Galant - General Motors

Particulate Matter Index (PMI) is the current standard used in the automotive industry to predict particulate emissions from gasoline-fueled vehicles.  PMI takes the weight fraction, vapor pressure, and double bond equivalent (DBE) value of every component in the fuel into account, including paraffins, oxygenates, olefins, and aromatics.  However, particulate emissions are largely attributed to high boiling range, high DBE value olefins and aromatics.  To probe this discrepancy, gums and distillation residues of several gasoline samples were generated and analyzed by GC-TOF and AccuTOF-DART.  These results will be compared to PMI of the whole fuel and particulate emissions data to determine if identifying and quantifying every component of gasoline for PMI is the most rational approach.

Abstract # 133 - Paper

Fatty ACid Methyl Ester in Fuels by GC-MS & GCxGC

Ramkumar Dhandapani - Phenomenex

Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAMEs) are a big threat in aviation fuels as well as in biofuels. Accurate quantitation and separation of cis trans, low and higher boiling FAMes is essential from quality control prespective as well as from a safety prespective. In the present work a ZB-FAME GC column is utilized to accurately characterize FAME in Fuels by GC MS. Traditional selectivity like a 100% Polyethyleneglycol phase may have few coelutions of FAME, while coupling ZB-Fame with Mass spec based detection priovides excellent separation of cis & trans FAME along with lower level detection. Traditional high cyano selectivity takes an hour to separate Cis/ trans FAMEs, while ZB-FAME can separate them within 11 min. This approach was also extended to 2D GC using ZB-Fame in the first dimension & a 5% phenyl selectivity in the second dimension to obtain orthogonal separation. Thus analysis of fuels by GC MS & GCxGC using  ZB-FAME  assures safety of aviation fuels.

Abstract # 135 - Paper

Application of Fast GC Column Technology to On-line Process Gas Chromatography

Eric Schmidt - Dow Chemical
Anna Sandlin - Dow Chemical
Linda Heinicke - Dow Chemical
Bill Winniford - Dow Chemical
Wilco Hoogerwerf - Dow Chemical
Jasper Van Noyen - Dow Chemical
Dale Ashworth - Valco Instruments Company, Inc.
Chris Bishop - Valco Instruments Company, Inc.

Understanding conversion and selectivity of gas phase hydrocarbon processes is often enhanced by the application of on-line analytical measurements to observe the chemistry in near real-time so that the end-user of the data can more easily link “cause and effect.” The agility and power of liberating the technology affords end users a means to determine the conditions for optimum yield, assure process control, understand process upsets, and characterize unknown streams with urgency not possible by conventional means. On-line process gas chromatography (GC) applications are typically limited to packed column and isothermal oven technology. This presentation will describe the use of fast GC column technology as applied to process GC to gather the analytical information needed to better understand, optimize, and probe chemical problems. The results illustrate simplifying a GC method by combining multiple isothermal column trains into a fast GC unit thereby reducing method development time and improving peak resolution.

Abstract # 136 - Paper

Turning up the heat on WAX GC columns without getting burned

Vanessa Abercrombie - Agilent Technologies
Daron Decker - Agilent Technologies

100 % polyethylene glycol (PEG) columns, also known as WAX columns, are used for a wide variety of applications, such as industrial chemicals and petrochemicals. Traditional WAX columns have a maximum temperature limit of 250 °C isothermal and 260 °C programmed due to issues with decreased thermal stability, reducing the potential applications range. The Agilent J&W DB-HeavyWAX has an extended temperature limit, up to 280 °C isothermal and 290 °C programmed and increased thermal stability, increasing injection-to-injection retention time reproducibility and column lifetime. The increased upper temperature limit allows for faster analysis while minimizing possibility of carryover sample to sample.

Abstract # 137 - Training Course

Gas Chromatography Made Easy

Dr. Lee Polite - Axion Analytical Training Labs

Gas Chromatography (GC) is one of the world's most popular analytical tools, yet very few people understand how it works.  Analysts can push buttons, but most analysts are not quite sure why they are pushing the buttons.  During this talk, we will unveil all of those mysteries and get you to understand how the underlying technology works.  The best kept secret is that GC is totally understandable.  By the end of this short course, not only will you understand how GC works, but you will very comfortable developing a GC method from scratch, including choosing the correct column length, diameter, film thickness, stationary phase, flow rate, inlet, detector, etc.

Abstract # 138 - Paper

Latest Developments in Ionic Liquid Stationary Phase Technology

Leonard Sidisky - MilliporeSigma (Supelco)
Jamie Desorcie - MilliporeSigma
Greg Baney - MilliporeSigma
Kathy Kiefer - MilliporeSigma

Over the years, extensive evaluations of columns manufactured with ionic liquid stationary phases have occurred. Their main strength was discovered to be unique selectivity. This selectivity is made possible due to the various combinations of cations and anions that are available along with spacer groups used to prepare these germinal dicationic phases. Columns prepared with di- or tricationic phases have the ability to perform many of the same applications as columns made with polysiloxane polymer or polyethylene glycol stationary phases of similar polarity, but with slight elution order changes. Many times this results in increased resolution and/or shorter run times. This paper will compare and contrast the selectivity of the ionic liquids stationary phases with traditional phases of similar or like selectivity’s for applications with a variety of different sample types from a number of industries including petrochemical, pharmaceutical, environmental, food and beverage and flavor and fragrance.

Abstract # 139 - Paper

Thermal-Vaporization/Pyrolysis and GC/MSMS of Evolved Hydrocarbon from Source Rocks and mud-rock Reservoirs

Thomas Malloy - University of Houston-Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences
Mei Mei - University of Houston- Center for Petroleum Geoche
Jeffery C. Wright - University of Houston- Center for Petroleum Geoche
Adry Bissada - University of Houston- Center for Petroleum Geoche

Sound petroleum-resource assessment requires determination of petroleum generation potential, oil-in-place, and molecular characterization of that oil. Traditionally, this has been done by RockEval pyrolysis and solvent-extraction with subsequent SARA/GC/GCMS analysis. Rotovap of extracts and SARA fractions results in loss of light ends and other fractionation problems. A new approach using the Frontier Laboratories’ thermovaporization-multishot pyrolyzer, interfaced with cryo-trapping and Agilent’s GC-FID-MSD system, was recently developed to measure and characterize evolved products. Unfortunately, complexity of these released analytes deterred customary molecular characterization. More recently, the problem was overcome by utilizing pyrolysis GC/MSMS system and our new whole-oil analysis method.

Abstract # 141 - Paper

Estimating Particulate Matter Index for Gasoline with Fast Gas Chromatography – Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy

Jack Cochran - VUV Analytics
Sean Jameson - VUV Analytics
Dan Wispinski - VUV Analytics
James Diekmann - VUV Analytics

Particulate Matter Index (PMI) indicates how fuel quality contributes to particle number emissions in automobiles.  Because gasoline is complex, GC-FID detailed hydrocarbon analysis (DHA) is used to separate and quantify individual compounds, followed by calculation of their contributions to the PMI.  DHA GC run time and post-processing data review can be lengthy.

GC with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectroscopy (modified ASTM D8071) offers a faster way to estimate PMI.  Because of their unique absorbance spectra, the low-volatility mono- and di-aromatics responsible for most of the PMI are easily quantified with VUV, even in the presence of interfering isoparaffins, olefins, and naphthenes.  

Abstract # 142 - Paper

Extended Analysis of Natural Gas using a Micro GC

Vince Giarrocco - INFICON

A method for C9+ extended analysis of raw unprocessed natural gas streams using a Micro GC is described.  Extended analysis refers to reporting the C6+ as groups including hexanes (C6), heptanes (C7), octanes (C8) and nonanes plus (C9-C12), in addition to measurements of N2, methane, CO2 and C2-C5.  The INFICON Micro GC Fusion with a sampling conditioner, fixed volume injectors, temperature programmed columns, and TCD was used for this work.  Example chromatograms, data and optimization are discussed.  With fast analysis/simple operation the method is suited for measurements made in the field or lab, meeting GPA specifications and BLM on-shore guidelines.

Abstract # 143 - Paper

CFR Innovations by StanCo Scientific, Inc.

Jeremy Majewski - StanCo Scientific, Inc.

We will be doing a presentation to cover the newest innovations of CFR technologies by StanCo Scientific. Pieces included will be: Digital CFR Panel, Digital Temperature Controller, and Digital Detonation Meter. The digital CFR panel is an upgrade to customers with legacy CFR panels. The alternative digital temperature controller correctly controls the inlet air and mixture temperatures. The digital detonation meter is an upgrade to existing 501-C detonation meters throughout the industry. These innovations provide modern solutions to aging equipment throughout the fuel testing industry all with the customer needs and budget in mind.